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31 October

475 – Roman Empire – Romulus Augustulus appointed Roman Emperor (west). http://www.roman-empire.net/collapse/romulus.html

802 – Byzantine Empire – Empress Irene deposed, Nikephoros I became Emperor. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irene_of_Athens https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikephoros_I


1517 – Germany – Martin Luther issued the 95 Theses. https://youtu.be/fJITsWCua1M http://www.luther.de/en/95thesen.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninety-five_Theses

1763 – America – Siege of Fort Detroit ended (Pontiac’s War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Fort_Detroit

1864 – USA – Nevada became 36th State. http://www.50states.com/nevada.htm#.VjRhU9Inzcs

1876 – India – Backerganj hit by cyclone, 200,000 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1876_Bangladesh_cyclone

1895 – USA – Earthquake measuring 6.6Mw, epicentre in Charleston, Missouri. https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1895_10_31.php

1903 – USA – Purdue train wreck, 17 killed, including members of Purdue University Football team. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purdue_Wreck


1908 – UK – IV Summer Olympic Games Closing Ceremony in London. http://youtu.be/3IqE2KEqZJI http://www.olympic.org/london-1908-summer-olympics

1913 – USA – Lincoln Highway dedicated. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/lincoln.cfm

1913 – USA – Indianapolis Street Car Strike began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indianapolis_streetcar_strike_of_1913


1914 – China – Siege of Tsingtao began (WWI). https://youtu.be/teLj4-NEd74  WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Tsingtao

1917 – UK – Air Raid on London (WWI). http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/component/content/article.html?id=876:bombing-britain-war

1917 – Israel – Battle of Beersheba (WWI). http://www.rfd.org.au/site/beersheba.asp

1918 – Austria-Hungarian Empire – Aster Revolution ended (WWI). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aster_Revolution

1922 – Italy – Benito Mussolini became Prime Minister. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benito_Mussolini


1926 – USA – Harry Houdini died. https://youtu.be/72IBUiXJogc https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Houdini


1936 – UK – Jarrow march ended. https://youtu.be/YVkzg1Izfbw http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/jarrow_01.shtml https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jarrow_March

1940 – UK – Battle of Britain ended (WWII). https://youtu.be/52YOKT_O10U WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Britain


1941 – UK – Fire at H Booth & Son Clothing Factory, Huddersfield, 49 killed. https://youtu.be/KrV-_A5fV78 http://www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=606

1941 – USA – Mount Rushmore completed. https://youtu.be/f4nAwpIDBHg   https://www.nps.gov/moru/learn/historyculture/index.htm

1941 – Iceland – USS Reuben James torpedoed, 100+ killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Reuben_James_(DD-245)

1944 – France – USAAF plane crashed at Tournon, 4 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19441031-3

1945 – Peru – Joined the United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/members/

1945 – Uruguay – Air France plane crashed at Laguna de Rocha, 2 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19451031-1

1947 – India – IAF plane crashed in Pir Panjal Range, 25 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19471031-0


1950 – South Korea – Goyang Geumjeong Massacre ended (Korean War). https://youtu.be/JF_osR8m1Oc WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goyang_Geumjeong_Cave_massacre

1950 – UK – BEA plane crashed London Airport, 28 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19501031-0

1953 – Brazil – FAB plane crashed near Marabá, PA, 4 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19531031-0

1953 – Ukraine – Aeroflot plane crashed near Kharkov Airport, 15 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19531031-1

1954 – Australia – TAA plane crashed at Mangalore Airport, VIC, 3 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19541031-0

1955 – Panama – US Navy plane crashed at Colón-Coco Solo NAS, 8 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19551031-0


1963 – USA ­– Explosion at Indiana State Fair Coliseum, Indianapolis, 74 killed. https://youtu.be/sDVPdBK_Rjw WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing   http://www.indystar.com/story/news/history/retroindy/2014/01/15/coliseum-explosion/4495037/


1984 – India – President Indira Gandhi assassinated. https://youtu.be/V5ffAx8SVJQ WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-29725430

1984 – India – Anti-Sikh Riots began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1984_anti-Sikh_riots


1994 – USA – American Eagle Flight 4184 crashed near Roselawn, IN, 68 killed. https://youtu.be/jac-aYwuB1o WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19941031-1


1996 – Brazil – TAM Transportes Aéreos Regionais Flight 402 crashed near Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport, 99 killed. https://youtu.be/8f6yxGYW4Rw WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19961031-0


1999 – USA – Egypt Air Flight 990 crashed off Nantucket Island, MA, 217 killed. https://youtu.be/gkJbjfeBJAs WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19991031-0

1999 – Australia – Jesse Martin completed solo world circumnavigation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesse_Martin

2000 – Russia – Soyez 31 launched. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_TM-31

2000 – Australia – Paralympic XI Summer Games Closing Ceremony in Sydney. http://www.paralympic.org/sydney-2000


2000 – Taiwan – Singapore Airlines Flight 006 crashed at Taipey-Chiang Kai Shek Airport, 83 killed. https://youtu.be/EOQj4uh4AB0 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20001031-0

2000 – Angola – Ancargo Air plane shot down near Mona Quimbundo, 49 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20001031-1

2001 – Papua New Guinea – Earthquake measuring 7.0Mw, epicentre in New Britain region.


2002 – Italy – Earthquake measuring 5.9Mw, epicentre in Molise, 29 killed. https://youtu.be/leVl9xmALO0 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002_Molise_earthquake

2003 – Japan – Earthquake measuring 7.0Mw, epicentre off east coast of Honshu.

2003 – Malaysia – President Mahathir Mohamad resigned, Abdullah Ahmed Badawi became president. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahathir_Mohamad https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdullah_Ahmad_Badawi

2007 – USA – Earthquake measuring 7.2Mw, epicentre in Mariana Islands. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2007/us2007jdal/

2011 – World – Global population reached seven billion. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Day_of_Seven_Billion

2015 – Egypt – Metrojet 7K9268 crashed near Hasna, North Sinai, 224 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20151031-0

York

1984 – The restored Fairfax House opened by Duchess of Kent. http://www.fairfaxhouse.co.uk/