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23 October


42 BC – Roman Republic – Second Battle of Philippi (Liberators’ Civil War). https://youtu.be/12eM9E0Q00U WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Philippi#The_Second_Battle

425 – Roman Empire – Flavius Placidius Velentinianus Augustus became Emperor (West). http://www.roman-empire.net/collapse/valentinian-III.html

1086 – Spain – Battle of Sagrajas (Reconquista). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sagrajas

1157 – Denmark – Battle of Grathe Heath. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Grathe_Heath

1641 – Ireland – Irish Rebellion began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Rebellion_of_1641

1642 – England – Battle of Edgehill (English Civil War). https://youtu.be/Ls1KVGQDAMA WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://www.battlefieldstrust.com/resource-centre/medieval/battleview.asp?BattleFieldId=3

1707 – GB – First meeting of Parliament. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/evolutionofparliament/legislativescrutiny/act-of-union-1707/overview/thanksgiving-and-lament/

1739 – Caribbean/America – War of Jenkins’ Ear began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_Jenkins%27_Ear

1812 – France – Malet Coup. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malet_coup_of_1812


1850 – USA – First National Women’s Rights Convention began in Worcester Massachusetts. https://youtu.be/u86Da3DzXKQ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Women%27s_Rights_Convention#1850_in_Worcester

1864 – USA – Battle of Westport (American Civil War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Westport

1896 – Eritrea & Ethiopia – First Italo-Ethiopian War ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Italo-Ethiopian_War


1906 – France – Alberto Santo-Dumont flew in the first heavier than air flight in Europe. https://youtu.be/3NWFFSx5lSE https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberto_Santos-Dumont#Heavier_than_air_aircraft

1912 – Ottoman Empire – Battle of Kumanovo (First Balkan War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Kumanovo


1915 – USA – Up to 33,000 women marched on Fifth Avenue, New York to advocate Votes for Women. https://youtu.be/Be9w6WjubkU http://behindthescenes.nyhistory.org/1915-women-march-suffrage/

1922 – UK – Andrew Bonar Law became Prime Minister (Conservative). https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/andrew-bonar-law

1942 – Egypt – Battle of El Alamein began (WWII). https://youtu.be/oBYFb088pKg WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_El_Alamein

1942 – USA – American Airlines Flight 28 crashed near Palm Springs, California, 12 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19421023-1  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Airlines_Flight_28

1942 – Solomon Islands – Battle for Henderson Field began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_for_Henderson_Field

1944 – Finland – Luftwaffe plane shot down at Luppovaara, 1 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19441023-4

1944 – Philippines – Battle of Leyte Gulf began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Leyte_Gulf

1945 – Bangladesh – RAF plane missing near Chiringa, 14 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19451023-0

1946 – Egypt – SOCOTRA plane crashed at Gebel Kalamoun, 1 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19461023-0

1952 – France – Aéronavale plane crashed near Bonneuil-sur-Marne, 11 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19521023-0

1956 – Hungary – Hungarian Revolution began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hungarian_Revolution_of_1956

1957 – Morocco – Ifni War began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ifni_War

1958 – Canada – Earthquake trapped miners in Springhill colliery, Nova Scotia, 74 killed. https://interestingcanadianhistory.wordpress.com/2013/10/23/springhill-nova-scotia-mine-disaster-oct-23-1958/

1972 – North Vietnam – Operation Linebacker I ended (Vietnam War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Linebacker

1983 – Lebanon – Beirut Barracks Bombing (Lebanese Civil War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1983_Beirut_barracks_bombings


1989 – USA – Gas explosion at Phillips 66, Pasadena, Texas, 23 killed. http://youtu.be/3l2PQEjMnnM https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phillips_disaster_of_1989

1991 – Cambodia etc – Cambodian-Vietnamese War ended (Third Indochina War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambodian%E2%80%93Vietnamese_War

1993 – Northern Ireland – Shankhill Road Bombing, 10 killed (The Troubles). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shankill_Road_bombing

1995 – China – Earthquake measuring 6.2Mw, epicentre in Wuding, Yunnan, 53 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1995_Wuding_earthquake


2002 – Russia – Moscow Theatre Siege began. https://youtu.be/CggOz1ZW7PE WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moscow_theater_hostage_crisis

2004 – Japan – Earthquake measuring 6.6Mw, epicentre in Niigata Prefecture, 46 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_Ch%C5%ABetsu_earthquake

2011 – Turkey – Earthquake measuring 7.2w, epicentre in Van Province, 604 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Van_earthquake

2011 – Libya – Libyan Civil War ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_Civil_War_(2011)

2012 – UK – BBC’s Ceefax ceased to broadcast due to digital switchover. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-20032882

2014 – China – Chang’e 5 satellite launched. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chang%27e_5

York

1606 – Lady Mayoress & ladies of the aldermen welcomed Mrs Mathew, wife of Archbishop Tonias Mathew, at Bishopthorpe.