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21 October

686 – Rome – Conon became Pope. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Conon


1097 – Turkey – Battle of Antioch began (First Crusade). https://youtu.be/IIMAMTg4tio  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Antioch#First_siege

1187 – Rome – Alberto di Morra became Pope Gregory VIII. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_VIII

1209 – Holy Roman Empire – Otto IV became Holy Roman Emperor. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_IV,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

1422 – France – Charles VII became king. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_VII_of_France

1766 – Trinidad and Tobago – Earthquake measuring 7.9Mw, epicentre in Saint Joseph.

1797 – USA – USS Constitution launched in Boston Harbour. https://ussconstitutionmuseum.org/collections-history/discover-constitutions-history/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Constitution


1805 – Spain – Battle of Trafalgar (War of the Third Coalition). https://youtu.be/-9PsSLAK1u0 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://www.britishbattles.com/waterloo/battle-trafalgar.htm

1816 – Malaysia – Penang Free School founded. http://pfshistoricalsociety.weebly.com/history-of-pfs.html

1831 – Poland/Lithuania – November Uprising ended (Polish-Russian Wars). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_Uprising

1861 – USA – Battle of Ball’s Bluff (American Civil War). http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/ballsbluff.html

1867 – USA – Medicine Lodge Treaty signed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicine_Lodge_Treaty

1868 – USA – Earthquake measuring 6.8Mw, epicentre in Hayward, California, 30 killed. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1868_10_21.php

1879 – USA – Thomas Edison invented the first commercially practical Incandescent Light Bulb. http://www.edisonmuckers.org/thomas-edison-lightbulb/

1935 – USA – Chamberlain Flying Service plane crashed at Troy, New York, 1 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19351021-0

1940 – USA – Ernest Hemmingway’s For Whom the Bells Toll first published. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_Whom_the_Bell_Tolls https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Hemingway

1941 – Serbia – Kragujevac massacre ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kragujevac_massacre

1943 – USA – USAAF plane crashed near Grenada AAF, MS, 5 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19431021-0

1944 – Finland – Luftwaffe plane shot down at Muddusjävri, Ivalo, 3 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19441021-6

1944 – Prussia – Nemmersdorf Massacre (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nemmersdorf_massacre


1944 – Germany – Battle of Aachen ended (WWII). https://youtu.be/sygzZKvQPy4 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Aachen

1947 – UK – RAF plane crashed off Southend Pier, 4 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19471021-1

1950 – North Korea – Battle of Yongju began (Korean War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Yongju

1953 – USSR – Aeroflot plane crashed near Mineralnye Vody Airport, 1 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19531021-0

1959 – USA – Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum opened. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_R._Guggenheim_Museum


1966 – Wales – Slag heap collapsed on Aberfan village, 144 killed, mainly school children. https://youtu.be/TGwJsDbmv9M    WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/witness/october/21/newsid_3194000/3194860.stm

1971 – Scotland – Gas explosion at shopping centre in Clarkston, East Renfrewshire, 22 killed. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-glasgow-west-15393422

1981 – Greece – Andreas Papandreou became Prime Minister. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Papandreou

1987 – Sri Lanka – Jaffna Hospital massacre, 70 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaffna_hospital_massacre


1994 – Seoul – Seongsu Bridge collapsed, 32 killed. http://youtu.be/axNoWQa4li4 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.academia.edu/6947286/Cracks_Everywhere_How_the_Seongsu_Bridge_Collapse_Changed_Seoul_s_Urban_Personality

2011 – New Zealand – Earthquake measuring 7.4Mw, epicentre in Kermadec Islands. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usb0006b6p/#details

2012 – USA – Azana Spa Shooting, 4 killed. http://fox6now.com/2013/03/01/full-report-from-azana-salon-spa-mass-shooting-released/