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18 October

614 – Frankish Kingdom – Edict of Paris issued. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edict_of_Paris

707 – Rome – Pope John VII died. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_John_VII

1009 – Jerusalem – Destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Destruction_of_the_Church_of_the_Holy_Sepulchre_1009

1016 – England – Battle of Assandun. http://www.recordinguttlesfordhistory.org.uk/hadstock/hadstockbattle.html

1216 – England – John died, aged 49, Henry III became king, aged 9. http://www.britroyals.com/kings.asp?id=john http://www.britroyals.com/kings.asp?id=henry3

1356 – Switzerland – Earthquake measuring 6.2Mw, epicentre in Basel, 1,000 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1356_Basel_earthquake

1386 – Germany – University of Heidelberg opened. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heidelberg_University#Founding

1503 – Rome – Pope Pius III died. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Pius_III

1540 – America – Battle of Mabila. http://archaeology.about.com/od/mameterms/qt/Mabila.htm

1558 – Poland – Poczta Polska founded. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poczta_Polska

1565 – Japan – Battle of Fukuda Bay. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fukuda_Bay

1599 – Transylvania – Battle of Selimbăr (Long War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_%C8%98elimb%C4%83r

1748 – Europe, North America & Asia – War of Austrian Succession ended with signing of the Treaty Aix-la-Chapelle. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Aix-la-Chapelle_(1748) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_Austrian_Succession


1775 – America – Phillis Wheatley freed from slavery. https://youtu.be/32TRZO_bs7E  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phillis_Wheatley

1797 – Europe – War of the First Coalition ended with the signing of the Treaty of Campo Formio. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_First_Coalition#1797 http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/government/diplomatic/c_campoformio2.html

1851 – UK – The Whale (Moby Dick) by Herman Melville first published. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moby-Dick


1859 – USA – John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry ended. https://youtu.be/11gevEoaJsk http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/johnbrown.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Brown%27s_raid_on_Harpers_Ferry

1867 – USA – Bought Alaska from Russia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaska_Purchase

1898 – Puerto Rico – US took control. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/u-s-takes-control-of-puerto-rico

1912 – Ottoman Empire – Italo-Turkish War ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italo-Turkish_War

1922 – UK – British Broadcasting Company founded. http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/historyofthebbc/1920s.pdf


1929 – Canada – Edwards v. Canada, women declared as “Persons” under Canada Law. https://youtu.be/if_pyx5dm9Y http://womenshistory.about.com/od/laws/p/persons_case.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwards_v._Canada_(Attorney_General)

1933 – Nicaragua – F Free plane crashed at Managua, 3 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19331018-0


1945 – Argentina – Joan Perón married Eva Duarte. https://youtu.be/xWIdn4v_cwc https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Per%C3%B3n https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Per%C3%B3n

1948 – Germany – USAF plane crashed near Frankfurt, 3 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19481018-0

1956 – Antarctica – US Navy plane crashed at McMurdo Station, 4 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19561018-0


1963 – France – Félicette (cat) launched into space on Véronique AGI 47. https://youtu.be/v-tpmvGRoyw WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A9licette

1998 – Nigeria – Oil pipeline explosion at Jesse, c.1200 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998_Jesse_pipeline_explosion


2000 – Australia – Paralympic XI Summer Games Opening Ceremony in Sydney. https://youtu.be/rkZ9LtoMaNg http://www.paralympic.org/sydney-2000

2007 – Pakistan – Suicide Bomb attack in Karachi, 139 killed. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7051804.stm

York

1832 – William Hodkin was executed at gallows behind Castle Walls. http://pastsearch-archaeo-history.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Criminals-and-Executions-Jan12.pdf

1844 – St Peter’s School amalgamated with Clifton Proprietary School. http://www.stpetersyork.org.uk/st_peters/about/history_of_st_peters