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12 October

633 – England – Battle of Hatfield Chase. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hatfield_Chase

638 – Rome – Pope Honorius I died. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Honorius_I

642 – Rome – Pope John IV died. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_John_IV

1398 – Lithuania – Treaty of Salynas signed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Salynas

1428 – France – Siege of Orléans began (Hundred Years’ War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Orl%C3%A9ans

1641 – Italy – Wars of Castro began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_Castro

1654 – Netherlands – Explosion in Delft, 100 killed. http://www.newnetherlandinstitute.org/files/2013/5757/5054/THE_DELFT_THUNDERCLAP_OF_1654.pdf

1692 – America – Salem Witch Trials ended. http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/ASA_LETT.HTM

1748 – Cuba – Battle of Havana (War of Jenkin’s Ear). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Havana_(1748)

1773 – America – The “Public Hospital for Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds” opened in Virginia. http://www.history.org/almanack/places/hb/hbhos.cfm

1792 – USA – First Columbus Day celebration in New York. http://www.history.com/topics/exploration/columbus-day

1798 – Southern Netherlands – Peasants’ War began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peasants%27_War_(1798)

1799 – France – Jeanne Geneviève Labrosse, became first woman to parachute from a balloon. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeanne_Genevi%C3%A8ve_Labrosse

1810 – Bavaria – First Oktoberfest. http://www.ofest.com/history.html

1822 – Brazil – Pedro I proclaimed Emperor. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_I_of_Brazil

1864 – South America – Paraguayan War began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraguayan_War

1892 – USA – Pledge of Allegiance first recited. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pledge_of_Allegiance

1901 – USA – President Roosevelt officially renamed the Executive Mansion to the White House. http://4thefirsttime.blogspot.co.uk/2009/01/1901-us-presidents-house-named-white.html

1915 – Belgium – British nurse Edith Cavell executed for helping Allied soldiers to escape (WWI). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edith_Cavell

1917 – Belgium – First Battle of Passchendaele (Part of Battle of Passchendaele – WWI). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Passchendaele


1918 – USA – Forest fire in Cloquet, Minnesota, 453 killed. https://youtu.be/UdIOYUHAsHw https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1918_Cloquet_Fire

1928 – USA – Iron Lung used for first time in Children’s Hospital, Boston. http://www.wired.com/2011/10/1012iron-lung/

1941 – Germany – RAF bombers attacked Hüls & Berlin (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1942 – Solomon Islands – Battle of Cape Esperance ended (WWII). http://www.history.navy.mil/research/library/online-reading-room/title-list-alphabetically/s/solomon-islands-campaign-iv-battle-of-cape-esperance.html

1945 – China – USAAF plane crashed near Beijing-Nanyuan Airport, 59 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19451012-0

1948 – Azerbaijan – Aeroflot/Uzbekistan plane crashed near Yevlakh, 10 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19481012-2

1948 – Russia – Aeroflot plane crashed near Kirensk, 4 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19481012-3

1950 – Australia – John Fairfax & Sons plane crashed at Bungulla, NSW, 2 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19501012-0

1950 – Japan – USAF plane crashed at Ashiya AB, 3 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19501012-1


1962 – USA/Canada – Columbus Day Storm hit. https://youtu.be/F5_uSpweQlU https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbus_Day_Storm_of_1962


1964 – USSR – Voskhod 1 launched. http://youtu.be/5G0E3Jw_er0  http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-065A


1968 – Mexico – XIX Summer Olympic Games Opening Ceremony in Mexico City. https://youtu.be/pVsQYRZgb10 http://www.olympic.org/mexico-1968-summer-Olympics


1971 – Persian Empire – 2500 Year Celebration of the Persian Empire began. https://youtu.be/GCJGZ_T4yH0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2,500_year_celebration_of_the_Persian_Empire

1972 – Vietnam – USS Kitty Hawk Riot began (Vietnam War). https://www.navytimes.com/military-honor/black-military-history/2017/02/28/race-riot-at-sea-1972-kitty-hawk-incident-fueled-fleet-wide-unrest/  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Kitty_Hawk_riot

1975 – Mexico – Summer VII Pan American Games began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1975_Pan_American_Games

1979 – UK – Douglas Adams’ Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy book first published. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hitchhiker%27s_Guide_to_the_Galaxy


1984 – UK – Brighton Hotel bombing by Provisional IRA, 5 killed. https://youtu.be/ic3QSEP8rww  WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/12/newsid_2531000/2531583.stm


1988 – Australia – Walsh Street Police Shootings. https://youtu.be/0wZuee7OtiE  WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walsh_Street_police_shootings

1992 – Egypt – Earthquake measuring 5.8Mw, epicentre in Cairo, 545 killed. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/10/13/world/earthquake-in-egypt-kills-370-and-injures-3300.html

1997 – Algeria – Sidi Daoud Massacre, 43 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidi_Daoud_massacre

2000 – Yemen – USS Cole Bombing. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Cole_bombing

2001 – Mariana Islands – Earthquake measuring 7.0Mw.


2002 – Indonesia – Bali Bombings, 204 killed. https://youtu.be/0dyPpty09Ik WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-19881138  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002_Bali_bombings

2005 – China – Shenzhou 6 launched. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidi_Daoud_massacre

York

1838 – Inquest held at Black Horse Inn, Pavement for death that day on the premises of Scottish drover William Ingles.