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18 November

1302 – Rome – Pope Boniface VIII issued Papal Bull Unam Sanctum (One Faith). http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/b8-unam.asp

1307 – Switzerland – William Tell shot an apple off his son’s head. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/search.html

1421 – Netherlands – Seawall at Zuiderzee broke, 72 villages flooded, 10,000 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zuiderzee

1583 – Germany – Siege of Godesberg began (Cologne War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Godesberg

1601 – Ottoman Empire – Siege of Nagykanizsa ended (Long War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Nagykanizsa

1727 – Iran – Earthquake measuring 7.0Mw, epicentre in Tabriz, 77,000 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1727_Tabriz_earthquake

1730 – Prussia – ‘Frederick II’ released from confinement. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_the_Great

1755 – America – Earthquake measuring 5.0Mw, epicentre in Boston, Massachusetts. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1755_11_18.php

1803 – Haiti – Battle of Vertières (Haitian Revolution).

http://www.haitiantreasures.com/vertieres.html

1903 – USA/Panama – Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty signed. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/pan001.asp

1812 – Russia – Battle of Krasnoi ended (Napoleonic Wars). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Krasnoi

1826 – Greece – Battle of Arachova began (Greek War of Independence). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Arachova

1883 – USA & Canada – Railroads instituted five standard continental time zones. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/railroads-create-the-first-time-zones

1905 – Norway – Prince Carl of Denmark became king Haakon VII. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haakon_VII_of_Norway

1809 – Indian Ocean – Action of 18 November (Napoleonic Wars). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_18_November_1809

1912 – Ottoman Empire First Battle of Çatalca ended (First Balkan War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_%C3%87atalca

1912 – Albania – Himara Revolt (First Balkan War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Himara_revolt_of_1912


1916 – France – First Battle of the Somme ended (WWI). https://youtu.be/tkboF4hu-bE WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Somme

1918 – Latvia – Independence from Russia.


1928 – USA – Walt Disney’s Steamboat Willie cartoon released. https://youtu.be/BBgghnQF6E4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steamboat_Willie

1929 – Canada – Earthquake measuring 7.3Mw, epicentre in Grand Banks, Newfoundland, 28 killed. http://www.earthquakescanada.nrcan.gc.ca/historic-historique/events/19291118-eng.php

1938 – Canada – Trans-Canada Air Lines plane crashed near Regina Airport, 2 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19381118-1

1940 – Germany – RAF bombers attacked Gelsenkirchen (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1943 – Germany – RAF campaign Battle of Berlin started (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Berlin_(RAF_campaign)


1947 – New Zealand – Fire at Ballantynes’ Department Store, Christchurch, 41 killed. http://youtu.be/zshOyyfQ4ng http://christchurchcitylibraries.com/kids/nzdisasters/ballantynes.asp

1947 – Italy – AB Trafik-Turist-Transportflyg plane crashed at Santa Maria del Monte, 21 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19471118-0

1947 – USA – TWA plane crashed at Wilmington-Newcastle County Airport, DE, 5 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19471118-1

1949 – Nigeria – Iva Valley Shooting, 21 killed.

1956 – Morocco – Independence from France and Spain.


1963 – USA – Push-button telephone went into service. https://youtu.be/iCuhx5zvetg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Push-button_telephone

1965 – South Vietnam – Battle of Ia Drang ended (Vietnam War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Ia_Drang


1978 – Guyana – Mass murder-suicide at Peoples Temple in Jonestown, 918 killed. https://youtu.be/c3yzkhJVXE4 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/18/newsid_2540000/2540209.stm


1987 – UK – Fire at King’s Cross St. Pancras underground station in London, 31 killed. https://youtu.be/wIAenEFpomU WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/18/newsid_2519000/2519675.stm

1991 – Croatia – Battle of Vukovar ended (Croatian War of Independence). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Vukovar


1999 – USA – College Station, Texas bonfire disaster, 12 killed. https://youtu.be/uF0zLLULl3Q WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressinghttp://www3.gendisasters.com/texas/19141/college-station-tx-bonfire-disaster-nov-1999

2013 – USA – MAVEN probe launched. http://mars.nasa.gov/maven/

York

1100 – Thomas I (of Bayeux), Archbishop of York died. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_of_Bayeux

1482 – Order issued that gates and posterns to be closed between 9pm and 5am.


1935 – Last day of electric tram services, replaced by motor buses. https://youtu.be/3dCRikjNg3Q http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/20th-century/transport-moves-on