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31 May

1279BC – Egypt – Ramesses II became Pharaoh. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/ramesses_01.shtml

455 – Roman Empire – Emperor Petronius Maximus stoned to death. http://www.roman-empire.net/collapse/petronius.html

1223 – Ukraine – Battle of the Kalka River. http://burnpit.legion.org/2012/05/battle-kalka-river-mongols-raiders-defeat-russians

1578 – France – First stone laid for Pont Neuf Bridge, Paris by Henry III. http://www.aviewoncities.com/paris/pontneuf.htm

1678 – England – “Lady Godiva’s procession” through Coventry, part of the Great Fair first recorded. http://www.mysteriousbritain.co.uk/england/warwickshire/legends/lady-godiva.html

1854 – France – Civil Death Procedure abolished. http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/government/code/c_code2.html

1862 – USA – Battle of Seven Pines began (American Civil War). http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/seven-pines.html

1864 – USA – Battle of Cold Harbour began (American Civil War). http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/cold-harbor.html

1879 – USA – Gilmore’s Garden, New York, renamed Madison Square Garden. http://nyc-architecture.com/MID/MID127.htm


1889 – USA – Johnstown Flood, Pennsylvania, 2,200 killed. https://youtu.be/WxXGh65IjiY WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://www.jaha.org/FloodMuseum/history.html http://www.jaha.org/FloodMuseum/history.html


1902 – South Africa – Treaty of Vereeniging signed, ending Second Boer War. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Vereeniging https://youtu.be/jzJtPOTpIrk WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Boer_War


1915 – UK – Zepplin Raid on London (WWI). https://youtu.be/e6-BZ2MzKMI WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing     http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/component/content/article.html?id=876:bombing-britain-war


1916 – North Sea – Battle of Jutland began (WWI). https://youtu.be/Bad90XZyH4w WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://bbc.in/22iYZCbhttp://bbc.in/22iYZCb http://www.battle-of-jutland.com/


1921 – USA – Tulsa Race Riot, 39 killed. https://youtu.be/yLwVxyD7A98 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://www.okhistory.org/research/forms/freport.pdf


1935 – Pakistan – Earthquake measuring 7.7Mw, epicentre in Quetta, 40,000 killed. http://youtu.be/kuAlcFDg3Bo WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://www.drgeorgepc.com/Earthquake1935PakistanQuetta.html


1941 – Ireland – German bombers hit Dublin, 38 killed. (WWII). https://youtu.be/FqjZ-2bkfX0 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Dublin_in_World_War_II

1941 – Iraq – Anglo-Iraqi War ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Iraqi_War


1942 – Australia – Attacks on Sydney began (WWII). https://youtu.be/GIK8zQG73KM  WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://www.ww2australia.gov.au/underattack/sydharbour.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attack_on_Sydney_Harbour

1947 – Algeria – Service de Télécommunication et de Signalisation plane crashed at Aoulef, 3 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19470531-0

1954 – Brazil – Transportes Aéreos Nacionales plane crashed at Serra do Cipó Mountains, MG, 19 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19540531-0

1970 – Peru – Earthquake measuring 7.9Mw, epicentre in Ancash, 80,000 killed. http://www.earthquakefacts.net/Peru-Earthquake.html

1973 – India – Indian Airlines Flight 440 crashed at Palam Airport, New Delhi, 48 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19730531-0

1981 – Sri Lanka – Burning of Jaffna Library. https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/burning-memories-jaffna-library-31st-may-1981/

1985 – USA/Canada – Ohio, Pensylvania, New York and Ontario hit by 41 tornadoes, 76 dead. http://www.erh.noaa.gov/cle/office/localinterest/1985Tornado/1985Tornado.php

2013 – USA – El Reno, Oklahoma hit by tornado, 9 killed. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/oun/?n=events-20130531

York

1982 – Pope John Paul II visited York. http://www.bbc.co.uk/northyorkshire/content/articles/2005/09/14/pope_visit_faith_feature.shtml