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31 March

1492 – Castille – Queen Isabella issued the Alhambra Decree. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/1492-jews-spain1.asp

1561 – Venezuela – San Cristóbal, Táchira founded. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Crist%C3%B3bal,_T%C3%A1chira

1807 – UK – William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland became Prime Minister (Tory). https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/william-bentinck-duke-of-portland

1814 – France – Battle of Paris ended (War of the Sixth Coalition). https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/william-bentinck-duke-of-portland

1829 – Rome – Cardinal Francesco Saverio Castiglioni became Pope Pius VIII. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Pius_VIII

1854 – Japan – Convention of Kanagawa signed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convention_of_Kanagawa

1866 – Chile – Bombardment of Valparaíso (Chincha Islands War). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombardment_of_Valpara%C3%ADso


1889 – France – Eiffel Tower officially opened. https://youtu.be/r65KAj2sB0U   http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/en/everything-about-the-tower/the-major-events.html

1898 – USA – Earthquake measuring 6.3Mw, epicentre in Mare Island, California. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1898_03_31.php

1899 – Philippines – Capture of Malolos (Philippine-American War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capture_of_Malolos

1901 – Black Sea – Earthquake measuring 7,2Mw. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1901_Black_Sea_earthquake


1909 – Ireland – Construction of RMS Titanic started at Hartland & Wolff shipyard, Belfast. https://youtu.be/YWExwlttyNc  http://www.rmstitanic.net/learning-center/history/the-ship.html

1910 – UK – 6 North Staffordshire Pottery towns become Stoke-on-Trent. http://www.thepotteries.org/sot/five.htm

1913 – Austria – The Vienna Concert Society rioted at Skandalkonzert. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skandalkonzert

1917 – Dutch West Indies – USA takes possession having paid $25 million to Denmark, renamed US Virgin Islands. http://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/wwi/107293.htm

1918 – USA – Daylight saving time went into effect for first time. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/03/090305-daylight-saving-time-facts-history_2.html

1921 – Australia – Royal Australian Air Force formed. http://www.airforce.gov.au/History/?RAAF-Sq7iGFssX2/HNFhOlsw4TP9fITfYhI7O

1928 – Turkey – Earthquake measuring 6.5Mw, epicentre in Izmir, 50 killed.

1931 – Nicaragua – Earthquake measuring 5.8Mw, epicentre in Managua, 2,000 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1931_Nicaragua_earthquake

1931 – USA – TWA Flight 599, crashed near Bazaar, Kansas, 8 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TWA_Flight_599

1933 – USA – JH O’Brien plane crashed near Neodesha, KS, 7 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19330331-0

1936 – China – Second Chinese Civil War began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Civil_War

1939 – Slovakia – Slovak-Hungarian War ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovak%E2%80%93Hungarian_War

1942 – Christmas Island – Battle of Christmas Island began (WWII). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Christmas_Island

1943 – UK – Royal Navy plane crashed at Donibristle, 7 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19430331-2

1944 – Germany – Battle of Berlin ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Berlin_(RAF_campaign)

1945 – Germany – Upper Silesian Offensive ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Silesian_Offensive

1946 – New Caledonia – US Navy plane crashed near Touho, 6 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19460331-0

1949 – Canada – Newfoundland and Labrador became 10th Province. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominion_of_Newfoundland

1964 – Brazil – Brazilian Coup D’état began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1964_Brazilian_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat

1965 – Morocco – Iberia plane crashed off Tangier Airport, 50 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19650331-0

1966 – USSR – Luna 10 launched. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-027A

1970 – Japan/North Korea – JAL Flight 351 hijacked at Tokyo International Airport, flown to Pyongyang-Sunan Airport. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19700331-0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_Airlines_Flight_351

1980 – USA – Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad last day of operations. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/eqc09

1983 – Colombia – Earthquake measuring 5.5Mw, epicentre in Popayán Cauca Department, 197 killed. https://www.eeri.org/lfe/pdf/Colombia_Popayan_Page_Jul83.pdf

1986 – UK – 7 metropolitan county councils (Greater London, Greater Manchester, Merseyside, South Yorkshire, Tyne and Wear, West Midlands, West Yorkshire) abolished. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/31/newsid_2530000/2530803.stm

1986 – Mexico – Mexicana Flight 940 crashed at Las Mesas, 167 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19860331-1

1990 – UK – Protest against Poll Tax in London. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/31/newsid_2530000/2530763.stm

1991 – Croatia – Croatian War of Independence began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Croatian_War_of_Independence

1992 – USA – Battleship USS Missouri decommissioned in Long Beach, California. http://www.ussmissouri.com/page.aspx?pid=590

1995 – Romania – TAROM Flight 371 crashed near Bucharest-Otopeni International Airport, 60 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19950331-0

2002 – Taiwan – Earthquake measuring 7.1Mw, 5 killed.

2004 – Iraq – Fallujah Ambush (Iraq War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_Fallujah_ambush

2006 – Iran – Earthquake measuring 6.1Mw, epicentre in Borujerd, 70 killed. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2006/uskyae/#details

2011 – Libya – Operation Harmattan ended (Libyan Civil War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Op%C3%A9ration_Harmattan

York

1379 – Edward Hewison was executed at Tyburn Gallows.

1541 – Sir John Neville and 10 associates were executed at Tyburn Gallows.

1583 – Peter Clark and Rinion Foster were executed at St. Leonard’s Gallows.

1622 – George Bell, Esq was executed at Tyburn Gallows.

1627 – William Cawan and William Hall were executed at Tyburn Gallows.

1630 – Charles Rochester, George Rocliffe and Christopher Singleton were executed at Tyburn Gallows.

1646 – Thomas Empson, John Dove, Joseph Dunning, Thomas Robinson and John Robinson were executed at Tyburn Gallows.

1682 – Eli Hydes was executed at Tyburn Gallows.

1690 – Henry Kilvington executed was at Tyburn Gallows.

1750 – Joseph Garbutt, Abraham Scott and John Tiplady were executed at Tyburn Gallows.

1764 – Charles Singleton Dorrington was executed at Tyburn Gallows.

1765 – Joseph Hairee was executed at Tyburn Gallows.

http://pastsearch-archaeo-history.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Criminals-and-Executions-Jan12.pdf

1829 – Formal trial of Jonathan Martin began, who started the fire in the Choir of the Minster. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Martin_(arsonist)

1849 – George Howe was executed at gallows behind Castle Walls. http://pastsearch-archaeo-history.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Criminals-and-Executions-Jan12.pdf