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4 July

362BCE – Greece – Battle of Mantinea (Theban Hegemony). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mantinea_(362_BC)

414 – Byzantine Empire – Emperor Theodesius II yielded power to his sister Aelia Pulcheria. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodosius_II  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulcheria

836 – Italy – Pactum Sicadi signed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pactum_Sicardi

1187 – Israel – Battle of Hattin ended (Crusades). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hattin

1415 – Rome – Deposed Pope Gregory XII abdicated. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_XII

1456 – Kingdom of Hungary – Siege of Nándorfehérvár began (Ottoman-Hungarian Wars). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Belgrade_(1456)

1610 – Russia – Battle of Klushino (Polish-Muscovite War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Klushino

1634 – Canada – Trois-Rivières founded. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/trois-rivieres/

1744 – America – Treaty of Lancaster signed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Lancaster

1776 – America – Declaration of Independence from Great Britain, approved by Congress. https://youtu.be/uNOTozVp_i4  http://www.history.com/topics/declaration-of-independence

1782 – GB – William Petty FitzMaurice, 2nd Earl of Shelburne became Prime Minister (Whig). https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/william-petty-2nd-earl-of-shelburne

1802 – USA – West Point Military Academy opened. http://www.usma.edu/wphistory/SitePages/Home.aspx


1817 – USA – Construction of Erie Canal began in Rome, New York. https://youtu.be/d31btbGNgx8   http://www.eriecanal.org/

1827 – USA – Slavery abolished in New York State. http://www.slavenorth.com/nyemancip.htm

1837 – UK – Grand Junction Railway opened between Birmingham & Liverpool. http://www.gracesguide.co.uk/Grand_Junction_Railway

1863 – USA – Siege of Vicksburg ended (American Civil War). http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/vicksburg/maps/vicksburgmap.html

1863 – USA – Battle of Helena (American Civil War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Helena

1879 – South Africa – Battle of Ulundi (Anglo-Zulu War). http://www.britishbattles.com/zulu-war/ulundi.htm

1881 – USA – Tuskegee Institute opened in Alabama. http://www.tuskegee.edu/about_us/history_and_mission.aspx

1902 – Philippines – Philippine-American War ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine–American_War

1911 – USA – Heat wave in Northeast started, 380 killed. http://www.courant.com/courant-250/moments-in-history/hc-in-1911-deadly-heat-settles-over-northeast-20140117-htmlstory.html

1918 – France – Battle of Hamel (WWI). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hamel

1941 – Ukraine – Polish scientists and writers killed by Nazis in Lviv (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massacre_of_Lviv_professors


1941 – Latvia – Burning of the Riga Synagogues (WWII). https://youtu.be/GKH179bnkfc  WARNING!  Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burning_of_the_Riga_synagogues

1942 – Germany – RAF bombers attacked Bremen (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1942 – USSR – Siege of Sevastopol ended (WWI). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Sevastopol_(1941–42)

1944 – Belarus – Minsk Offensive ended, Minsk liberated (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minsk_Offensive

1947 – UK – Indian Independence Bill presented before House of Commons. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/citizenship/brave_new_world/docs/indianindependence.htm

1948 – UK – A Scandinavian Airlines plane and an RAF plane collided mid air over Northwood, 39 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19480704-0

1998 – Japan – Launched the Nozomi probe to Mars. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nozomi_(spacecraft)

2001 – Russia – Vladivostokia Flight 352 crashed near Burdakovka, 145 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20010704-0

2009 – Philippines – Mindanao Bombings began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2009_Mindanao_bombings


2012 – Switzerland – CERN announced discovery of particles consistent with the Higgs boson. https://youtu.be/9iOgAlZOf7k  http://press.web.cern.ch/press-releases/2012/07/cern-experiments-observe-particle-consistent-long-sought-higgs-boson

York

1936 – York City Aerodrome officially opened by Lord Swinton, Minister for Air. http://www.forgottenairfields.com/united-kingdom/england/york/clifton-s977.html


1983 – BBC York first went on air. https://youtu.be/p9KrS0zfO14