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31 July

30BCE – Egypt – Battle of Alexandria began. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Alexandria_(30_BC)

432 – Rome – Sixtus III became Pope. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sixtus_III

1009 – Rome – Pietro Matino Boccapècora became Pope Sergius IV. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Sergius_IV

1423 – France – Battle of Cravant (Hundred Years’ War). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cravant

1492 – Spain – Expelled Jews had to leave by this date (Alhambra Decree). http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/1492-jews-spain1.asp


1588 – England – Spanish Armada seen off coast. https://youtu.be/mGyjxcTII_k WARNING! Videos contain scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/adams_armada_01.shtml

1667 – Netherlands – Second Anglo-Dutch War ended with signing of Treaty of Breda. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Anglo-Dutch_War https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Breda_(1667)

1712 – Baltic Sea – Action of 31 July (Great Northern War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_31_July_1712

1763 – America – Battle of Bloody Run (Pontiac’s War). http://www.galafilm.com/chiefs/htmlen/ottawa/ev_bloodyrun.html

1796 – Italy – First Battle of Lonato (French Revolutionary Wars). http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/battles/c_lonato.html

1856 – New Zealand – Christchurch is chartered as a city. http://my.christchurchcitylibraries.com/christchurch-european-settlement/

1865 – Australia – First narrow gauge mainline railway opened at Grandchester, Queensland. http://www.queenslandrail.com.au/Safety/Documents/QRsHistory.pdf


1917 – Belgium – Battle of Passchendaele began (WWI). https://youtu.be/IiVUIJ282uI WARNING! Videos contain scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Passchendaele

1931 – USA – W2XAB experimental television station began broadcasting in New York. http://www.earlytelevision.org/w2xab.html

1938 – Iran – Archaeologists excavating at Persepolis discovered engraved gold and silver plates from King Darius the Great. http://bookofmormonresearch.org/site_index/metal-records/persia/darius-i-persepolis

1940 – USA – Two trains collided at Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, 43 killed. http://www3.gendisasters.com/ohio/2321/cuyahoga-falls,-oh-head-train-collision,-july-1940

1941 – Libya – RAF plane shot down off Libyan coast, 8 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19410731-0

1942 – Germany – RAF bombers attacked Düsseldorf (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1944 – Italy – USAAF plane crashed near Salerno, 9 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19440731-2

1944 – Oman – RAF plane crashed near Salalah, 32 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19440731-3

1947 – China – Republic of China Air Force plane crashed in Yumen Province, 26 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19470731-0

1970 – Columbia – Earthquake measuring 8.0Mw, 1 killed.

1970 – UK – Last day of the sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy (Black Tot Day). http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_8859000/8859506.stm

1972 – Northern Ireland – Operation Motorman (The Troubles). http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/operation_motorman

1973 – USA – Delta Air Lines Flight 723 crashed near Boston Logan International Airport, 89 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19730731-0


1975 – Northern Ireland – Miami Showband Killing (The Troubles). https://youtu.be/3MbDcHjWkio WARNING! Videos contain scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-33727399

1979 – UK – Dan Air Flight 0034 crashed at Sumburgh Airport, Scotland, 17 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19790731-0

1987 – Canada – F4 tornado hit Edmonton, Alberta, 27 killed. http://past.theweathernetwork.com/news/storm_watch_stories3&stormfile=Edmonton_tornado_remembered_29_07_2012

1988 – Malaysia – Bridge at Sultan Abdul Halim ferry terminal collapsed, Butterworth, Penang, 32 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultan_Abdul_Halim_ferry_terminal_bridge_collapse

1991 – USA/USSR – Signed START I Treaty. http://www.nti.org/treaties-and-regimes/treaties-between-united-states-america-and-union-soviet-socialist-republics-strategic-offensive-reductions-start-i-start-ii/

1991 – Lithuania – Medininkai Massacre https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_OMON_assaults_on_Lithuanian_border_posts#Medininkai_incident

1992 – Georgia – Joined the United Nations.

1992 – Nepal – Thai Airways International Flight 311 crashed near Kathmandu, 113 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19920731-0

1992 – China – China General Aviation Flight 7552 crashed near Nanjing Airport, 108 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19920731-1

1993 – Israel – Operation Accountability ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Accountability


1997 – USA – FedEx Express Flight 14 crashed at Newark Liberty International Airport, all survived. https://youtu.be/460y8L3acPY WARNING! Videos contain scenes some viewers may find distressing http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19970731-0

2002 – Israel – Hebrew University Bombing, 9 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_University_bombing

2007 – Northern Ireland – Operation Banner ended (The Troubles). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/northern-ireland-the-longest-tour-of-duty-is-over-459668.html