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25 July

306 – Roman Empire – Co-Emperor Constantius I Chlorus died. http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/constantiuschlorus.html

306 – Roman Empire – Caesar Flavius Constantinus Valerius Augustus proclaimed Roman Emperor, accepted as Caesar (west). http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/constantine-index.html

315 – Roman Empire – Arch of Constantine completed in Rome. http://www.rome101.com/Topics/ArchConstantine/

1139 – Portugal – Battle of Ourique (Reconquista). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Ourique

1278 – Spain – Naval Battle of Algeciras (Reconquista). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Algeciras_(1278)

1456 – Italy – Battle of Molinella. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Molinella

1492 – Rome – Pope Innocent VIII died. http://vatican.com/articles/popes/pope_innocent_viii-a4151

1547 – France – Coronation of Henry II. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II_of_France

1554 – England – Mary I married Philip II of Spain at Winchester Cathedral. http://tudorhistory.org/mary/queen.html

1603 – England/ Scotland – Coronation of James VI of Scotland as James I of England. http://www.britroyals.com/kings.asp?id=james1

1722 – Nova Scotia – Drummer’s War began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dummer%27s_War

1783 – USA – Siege of Cuddalore ended (American Revolutionary War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Cuddalore


1795 – GB – Building of Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, Wales started. https://youtu.be/nqeCu6jd9W0 http://www.engineering-timelines.com/scripts/engineeringItem.asp?id=100

1797 – Spain – Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife began (French Revolutionary Wars). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Santa_Cruz_de_Tenerife_(1797)

1799 – Egypt – Battle of Abukir (French Campaign in Egypt). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Abukir_(1799)

1814 – USA/Canada – Battle of Lundy’s Lane (War of 1812). http://www.eighteentwelve.ca/?q=eng/Topic/56

1837 – UK – First commercial use of electrical telegraph demonstrated by William Cook & Charles Wheatstone. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooke_and_Wheatstone_telegraph

1868 – USA – Wyoming became a US territory. http://www.politico.com/story/2013/07/lawmakers-create-the-wyoming-territory-july-25-1868-94697.html

1886 – UK – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury became Prime Minister (Conservative). https://www.gov.uk/government/people/robert-gascoyne-cecil


1893 – Greece – The Corinth Canal used for first time. http://youtu.be/T9kOK3QMu6Y  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corinth_Canal


1909 – English Chanel – Louis Blériot made first flight across English Chanel in a heavier than air machine (Calais to Dover) in 37 mins. http://youtu.be/JLUG_ZR9a0U  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Bl%C3%A9riot

1915 – UK – RFC Capt. Lanoe Hawker, first British Aviator to receive Victoria Cross. http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/hawker.htm

1917 – Canada – Income Tax introduced. http://wartimecanada.ca/document/world-war-i/taxation/income-tax-1917

1920 – Syria – Franco-Syrian War ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franco-Syrian_War

1941 – Germany – RAF bombers attacked Kiel & Hanover (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1943 – Germany – USAAF bombers attacked Hamburg & Essen (Operation Gomorrah – WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Hamburg_in_World_War_II http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1944 – France – Operation Spring Began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Spring

1944 – Venezuela – LAV plane crashed at Barcelona, 14 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19440725-0

1944 – Solomon Islands – USAAF plane crashed near Gaeta Village, Florida Island, 27killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19440725-1

1945 – USA – USAAF plane crashed near Tampa, FL, 13 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450725-1

1945 – Myanmar – RAF plane crashed near Akyab, 5 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450725-2

1946 – Myanmar – RAF plane crashed near Bassein, 22 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19460725-0

1948 – Germany – USAF plane crashed near Berlin-Tempelhof Airport, 2 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19480725-0


1956 – USA – SS Andrea Doria and MS Stockholme collided in fog south of Nantucket Island. 51 killed. http://youtu.be/7oKmt-jj5HM WARNING! Videos contain scenes some viewers may find distressing  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Andrea_Doria

1969 – China – Earthquake measuring 5.9Mw, epicentre in Yangjiang, Guangdong, 3,000 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1969_Yangjiang_earthquake

1971 – Colombia – Summer VI Pan American Games began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1971_Pan_American_Games

1973 – USSR – Mars 5 launched. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1973-049A

1992 – Spain – XXV Summer Olympic Games Opening Ceremony in Barcelona. http://www.olympic.org/barcelona-1992-summer-olympics

1993 – Israel – Operation Accountability began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Accountability

1993 – South Africa – Saint James Church massacre, Kenilworth, Cape Town. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_James_Church_massacre

1994 – USA – Israel & Jordan signed the Washington Declaration. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/wash_dec.html

1995 – France – Bomb exploded in Saint Michel station, Paris, 8 killed. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/01/world/french-court-sentences-2-for-role-in-1995-bombings-that-killed-8.html

1996 – Sri Lanka – Battle of Mullaitivu began (Sri Lankan Civil War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mullaitivu_(1996)


1997 – Montserrat – Soufrière Hills volcano erupted, 19 killed. https://youtu.be/LOPvlyk-8BQ WARNING! Videos contain scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://www.explorevolcanoes.com/Montserrat-soufriere-hills-eruption.html


2000 – France – Air France Flight 4590 Concorde crashed in Gonesse, 114 killed. https://youtu.be/ByB6wO3F30Y WARNING! Videos contain scenes some viewers may find distressing     http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20000725-0

2004 – Indonesia – Earthquake measuring 7.3Mw, epicentre in Southern Sumatra.

2007 – India – Pratibha Patil sworn in as first female President. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pratibha_Patil

2012 – Indonesia – Earthquake measuring 6.4Mw, epicentre in Simeulue, 1 killed. http://earthquake-report.com/2012/07/25/strong-earthquake-causes-1-death-in-indonesia/

2013 – Spain – High speed train crash at, 78 killed. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newsvideo/10201940/Dramatic-footage-shows-moment-Spanish-train-crashes-near-Santiago-de-Compostela.html

2016 – Japan – Knife attack in Tokyo, 19 killed. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-36890655

York

306 – Constantius died in York. Constantine, his son was proclaimed Emperor. http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/roman/constantius-chlorus http://www.bbc.co.uk/northyorkshire/content/articles/2005/09/27/constanine_ilny_feature.shtml

1730 – John Chapello was executed at Tyburn Gallows.

1768 – Joseph Hall and Thomas Lee were executed at Tyburn Gallows.

1774 – John Scott was executed at Tyburn Gallows.

http://pastsearch-archaeo-history.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Criminals-and-Executions-Jan12.pdf