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12 July

526 – Rome – Felix IV became Pope. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Felix_IV

685 – Rome – John V became Pope. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_John_V

927 – England & Scotland – Constantine II of Scotland pledged to Æthelstan of England that he would not ally with Viking kings. http://www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=get&type=chron&id=927b

1191 – Israel – Siege of Acre ended (Third Crusade). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_(1189%E2%80%9391)

1493 – Germany – Nuremberg Chronicles published. http://www.wdl.org/en/item/4108/

1543 – England – Henry VIII married Catherine Parr at Hampton Court Palace. http://www.britroyals.com/tudor.asp?id=catherine_parr

1580 – Russia – Ostrog Bible published. http://blog.londonlibrary.co.uk/?p=593

1691 – Ireland – Battle of Aughrim. http://www.galway.net/galwayguide/history/hardiman/chapter6/battle_of_aughrim.html

1691 – Rome – Cardinal Antonio Pignatelli became Pope Innocent XII. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Innocent_XII

1730 – Rome – Cardinal Lorenzo Corsini became Pope Clement XII. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Clement_XII

1776 – UK – Captain James Cook began 3rd voyage. http://www.captcook-ne.co.uk/ccne/timeline/voyage3.htm http://www.captaincooksociety.com/home/detail/the-third-voyage-1776-1780

1801 – Gibraltar – Second Battle of Algeciras began (French Revolutionary Wars). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Algeciras

1806 – Holy Roman Empire – 16 German imperial states left and formed the Confederation of the Rhine. http://www.napoleon.org/en/Template/chronologie.asp?idpage=464577&onglet=1

1864 – USA – Battle of Fort Stevens ended (American Civil war). http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/fort-stevens.html

1879 – Bulgaria – National Guards Unit founded. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Guards_Unit_of_Bulgaria

1913 – Bulgaria – Siege of Vidin began (Second Balkan War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Vidin_(1913)


1917 – USA – Striking miners were deported from Brisbee, Arizona. http://youtu.be/mXOVp9LLRAU http://www.library.arizona.edu/exhibits/bisbee/

1918 – Japan – Imperial Japanese Navy battleship Kawachi exploded at Shunun, 621 killed. http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?37385

1920 – USSR/Lithuania – Soviet-Lithuanian Peace Treaty signed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet%E2%80%93Lithuanian_Peace_Treaty

1943 – Italy – Battle of Gela ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Gela_(1943)


1943 – USSR – Battle of Prokhorovka (WWII). https://youtu.be/sLGUli_6tLs https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Prokhorovka

1943 – Solomon Islands – US Navy plane crashed at Tulagi Harbour, 7 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19430712-2

1944 – Morocco – US Navy plane crashed near Safi, 5 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19440712-0

1945 – USA – Eastern Air Lines Flight 45 collided with US Army plane over Florence, South Carolina, 3 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450712-0

1949 – USA – Standard Airlines Flight 897R crashed near Chatsworth, CA, 35 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19490712-0

1949 – India – KLM plane crashed near Bombay-Santacruz Airport, 45 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19490712-1

1949 – Germany – USAF plane crashed near Rathenow, 3 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19490712-2

1951 – Brazil – Loide Aéreo Nacional plane crashed near Aracaju Airport, SE, 33 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19510712-0

1951 – India – Indamer plane crashed near Tezpur, 3 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19510712-1

1951 – Senegal – L’Armée de L’Air plane crashed at Dakar-Ouakam Air Base, 8 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19510712-3

1951 – UK – RAF plane crashed near Lyneham- RAF Station, 10 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19510712-2

1953 – Wake Island – Transocean Air Lines Flight 512 crashed off Coast, 58 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19530712-0


1961 – India – Pune is flooded when the Khadakwasla and Panshet dams fail, 2000+ killed. http://youtu.be/qtNITRk_TzA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panshet_Dam

1963 – UK – Pauline Reade became the first victim of the Moors murders. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=10799244


1967 – USA – Newark riots began, New Jersey. https://youtu.be/2n0e3_vD-xE https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1967_Newark_riots

1971 – Australia – Australian Aboriginal Flag flown for first time. http://aiatsis.gov.au/explore/articles/aboriginal-flag

1973 – USA – National Personnel Records Centre Fire. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Personnel_Records_Center_fire

1975 – São Tomé and Príncipe – Independence from Portugal. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/sao-tome-and-principe/history

1993 – Japan and Russia – Earthquake measuring 7.7Mw, 230 killed,followed by tsunami along coast of Hokkaidō. http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/okushiri_devastation.html

2006 – Lebanon Israel – Hezbollah Cross-Border Raid (Lebanon War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_Hezbollah_cross-border_raid

2012 – Nigeria – Okobie Road Tanker Explosion, 121 killed. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/nigeria/9395846/100-killed-after-Nigerian-petrol-tanker-explodes.html

2012 – Syria – Battle of Tremseh, 68+ killed (Syrian Civil War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tremseh

2013 – France – Train derailed at Bretigny-sur-Orge station, 6 killed. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-23294630

York

1537 – Sir Robert Aske was executed in The Pavement (or 13 Aug). http://pastsearch-archaeo-history.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Criminals-and-Executions-Jan12.pdf http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/aske.htm