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1 July

69 – Roman Empire – Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus became Roman Emperor. http://www.roman-empire.net/emperors/vespasian.html

1097 – Turkey – Battle of Dorylaeum (First Crusade). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dorylaeum_(1097)


1147 – Portugal – Siege of Lisbon began (Reconquista). https://youtu.be/nT8-qcbAZp4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Lisbon

1431 – Granada – Battle of La Higueruela (Reconquista). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_La_Higueruela

1520 – Aztec Empire – La Noche Triste ended (Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Noche_Triste

1523 – Belgium – Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes, first Lutheran martyrs burned at stake by Roman Catholics in Brussels. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Esch_and_Heinrich_Voes

1690 – Ireland – Battle of the Boyne (Williamite War in Ireland). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Boyne

1747 – GB – Earthquake, epicentre in Taunton. http://www.quakes.bgs.ac.uk/historical/query_eq/

1766 – France – François-Jean de Barre tortured and burnt on pyre for not saluting Roman Catholic religious procession. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois-Jean_de_la_Barre

1782 – Canada – Raid on Lunenberg (American Revolutionary War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raid_on_Lunenburg,_Nova_Scotia_(1782)

1806 – USA – Pike Expedition ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pike_expedition

1846 – USA – Bear Flag Revolt ended. http://www.history.com/topics/bear-flag-revolt

1837 – England/Wales – Civil registration of Births, Mariages and Deaths established. http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/LIN/civilreg.html

1855 – USA – Quinault Treaty signed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinault_Treaty

1858 – UK – Joint reading of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace’s papers of evolution at Linnean Society, London. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/collections-at-the-museum/wallace-collection/item.jsp?itemID=137

1862 – Russia – Russian State Library founded. http://www.rsl.ru/en

1862 – USA – Battle of Malvern Hill (American Civil War). http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/malvern-hill.html

1863 – Suriname – Emancipation Day (Keti Koti). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keti_Koti


1863 – USA – Battle of Gettysburg began (American Civil War). https://youtu.be/UJjwb4eyAyo WARNING!  Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/gettysburg.html

1867 – Canada – Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia & New Brunswick became 1st – 3rd Provinces. http://www.aitc.sk.ca/saskschools/canada/facts.html


1867 – Canada – John A. Macdonald became Prime Minister. https://youtu.be/qhoH_PUkoX8 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_A._Macdonald

1873 – Canada – Prince Edward Island became 7th Province.  http://www.aitc.sk.ca/saskschools/canada/facts.html

1879 – USA – The Watchtower first published. https://archive.org/details/1879ZionsWatchTower  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Watchtower

1881 – Canada/USA – First international telephone call made between Sy. Stephen, New Brunswick and Calais, Maine.

1890 – Canada/Bermuda – Linked by telegraph cable. http://atlantic-cable.com/Cables/1890Halifax-Bermuda/

1898 – Cuba – Battle of San Juan Hill (Spanish American War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_San_Juan_Hill


1903 – France – Start of first Tour de France bicycle race. http://youtu.be/_VjM3Xef90A https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1903_Tour_de_France

1904 – America – III Summer Olympic Games Opening Ceremony in St. Louis. http://www.olympic.org/st-louis-1904-summer-olympics

1908 – UK – SOS recognised as international distress signal. http://telegraph-office.com/pages/arc2-2.html

1911 – USA – Earthquake measuring 6.5Mw, epicentre in Calaveras Fault, California. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1911_07_01.php


1916 – France – Battle of the Somme began (WWI). https://youtu.be/tkboF4hu-bE  WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/somme.htm

1921 – China – Communist Party of China founded.

1922 – USA – Great Railroad Strike began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Railroad_Strike_of_1922


1931 – USA – Wiley Post and Harold Gatty returned to Roosevelt Field. Long Island having circumnavigated world in single-engine plane in 8 days, 15 hours and 51 mins. https://youtu.be/_wmCNGkz9MY   http://www.wingnet.org/rtw/RTW002D.HTM

1942 – Egypt – First Battle of El Alamein began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_El_Alamein

1943 – USA – US Navy plane crashed at Pensacola NAS, FL,1 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19430701-1

1945 – USA – USAAF plane crashed near Spring Lake, TX, 5 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450701-1

1947 – UK – RAF plane crashed at Oakington RAF Station, 5 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19470701-1

1947 – Cameroon – Air France Flight 612 crashed near Eséka, 13 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19470701-2

1947 – USSR – Aeroflot plane crashed at Moskva-Vnukovo Airport, 4 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19470701-3

1947 – Philippines – Air Force founded. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Air_Force

1948 – Belgium – ALI plane crashed at Kerbergen Airfield, 8 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19480701-0

1948 – Mexico – Plane crashed at Pico de Orizaba, 14 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19480701-1

1951 – USA – USAF plane crashed near Fort Dix-McGuire SFB, NJ, 5 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19510701-0

1960 – Somalia – Declared independence from Italy. http://uca.edu/politicalscience/dadm-project/sub-saharan-africa-region/somalia-1960-present/

1962 – Burundi – Independence from Belgium. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14093322

1962 – Rwanda – Independence from Belgium. http://uca.edu/politicalscience/dadm-project/sub-saharan-africa-region/burundi-1962-present/


1963 – USA – ZIP Codes introduced to mail. https://youtu.be/fdAHKAJFWH4 http://www.zipboundary.com/zipcode_history.html http://postalmuseum.si.edu/zipcodecampaign/p4.html

1967 – Europe – EEC formally created. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Economic_Community

1967 – Sinai Peninsula – War of Attrition began (Arab-Israeli War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_Attrition


1972 – UK – First London Gay Pride march. https://youtu.be/egZHxMO8OYU   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pride_London


1979 – Japan – Sony Walkman introduced. https://youtu.be/lBqseObEt54  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walkman

1979 – Puerto Rico – Summer VIII Pan American Games began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1979_Pan_American_Games

1980 – Canada – “O Canada” officially became national anthem. http://www3.sympatico.ca/goweezer/canada/cananhist.htm

1980 – Netherlands – Paralympic VI Summer Games Closing Ceremony in Arnhem. http://www.paralympic.org/arnhem-1980

1983 – Guinea – CAAK plane crashed near Labé, 23 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19830701-0

1999 – Scotland – Scottish Parliament officially opened by Elizabeth II in Edinburgh.


2002 – Germany – Bashkirian Airlines Flight 2937 and DHL Flight 611 collided mid air near Lake Constance, 73 killed. https://youtu.be/FlXDScGoe8o WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20020701-0

2004 – Turkey – Earthquake measuring 5.1Mw, epicentre in Doğubeyazit, 18 killed.

2007 – England – Smoking banned in all public indoor spaces.

2008 – Mongolia – Ulaanbaatar Riot began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_riot_in_Mongolia

York

1644 – Siege of York ended (English Civil War). http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/city-under-siege