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30 January

1018 – Holy Roman Empire – Treary of Butzen signed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_of_Bautzen

1592 – Rome – Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini became Pope Clement VIII. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Clement_VIII

1607 – England & Ireland – A possible tsunami in the Bristol Channel, probably caused by an earthquake off the Irish Coast. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/6311527.stm

1648 – Dutch Republic – Treaty of Münster signed (Eighty Years War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_of_M%C3%BCnster

1649 – England – Second English Civil War ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_English_Civil_War

1649 – England – Charles I executed, aged 48. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/charlesi_execution_01.shtml


1661 – England – Oliver Cromwell ritually beheaded, 2 years after his death. https://youtu.be/QUxdvcuaNSQ WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell’s_head

1667 – Russia – Truce of Andrusovo. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truce_of_Andrusovo


1703 – Japan – Revenge of the 47 Ronin. https://youtu.be/3SwtYvgkJsA WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forty-seven_Ronin

1790 – England – Lifeboat first put to sea at South Shields. http://www.tynemouth-lifeboat.org/history/

1806 – USA – Lower Trenton Bridge opened. http://www.structuremag.org/?p=1713

1820 – Antarctica – Discovery claimed by Edward Bransfield. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/77779/Edward-Bransfield

1826 – Wales – Menai Suspension Bridge opened. http://www.engineering-timelines.com/scripts/engineeringItem.asp?id=88


1835 – USA – Attempted assassination of President Andrew Jackson. https://youtu.be/-aopKmA6VIs https://blogs.loc.gov/law/2014/01/ill-be-damned-if-i-dont-do-it-the-failed-assassination-attempt-on-president-andrew-jackson/  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Lawrence_(failed_assassin)

1841 – Puerto Rico – Fire of Mayagüez.

1847 – USA – Yerba Buena renamed San Francisco. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yerba_Buena,_California

1858 – UK – Hallé Orchestra gave first concert, Manchester. http://www.halle.co.uk/our-history.aspx

1862 – USA – USS Monitor launched. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Monitor

1902 – UK – Anglo-Japanese Treaty signed in London. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Japanese_Alliance

1911 – Canada – The Canadian Naval Service became the Royal Canadian Navy. http://www.canadaatwar.ca/forums/showthread.php?t=2680

1942 – South East Asia – Battle of Ambon began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Ambon

1942 – Indonesia – Qantas Empire Airways plane shot down by Japanese fighters off Timor, 13 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19420130-2

1943 – Germany – RAF bombers attacked Berlin (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1943 – Solomon Islands – Battle of Rennell Island ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Rennell_Island

1944 – Germany – RAF attacked Berlin (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1944 – Italy – Battle of Cisterna began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cisterna


1945 – Baltic Sea – MV Wilhelm Gustloff torpedoed and sank, 9400 killed. https://youtu.be/fu_ODa9cxQA  WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MV_Wilhelm_Gustloff


1945 – Philippines – Raid on Cabanatuan (WWII). https://youtu.be/fu_ODa9cxQA WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raid_at_Cabanatuan

1946 – France – RAF plane crashed near Le Mans, 11 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19460130-0


1948 – India – Mahatma Ghandi assassinated. https://youtu.be/l2DkE42ZREM  WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassination_of_Mahatma_Gandhi

1948 – Switzerland – V Winter Olympic Games Opening Ceremony in St. Moritz. http://www.olympic.org/st-moritz-1948-winter-olympics

1948 – Atlantic Ocean – BSAA plane missing, 31 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19480130-0

1959 – Greenland – MS Hans Hedtoft struck iceberg off coast, on maiden voyage, 95 killed. http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?135721

1964 – USA – Ranger 6 launched. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1964-007A

1968 – South Vietnam – Tet Offensive, Phase 1 began (Vietnam War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tet_Offensive

1972 – Northern Ireland – Bloody Sunday (The Troubles). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloody_Sunday_(1972)

1974 – Samoa – Pan AM Flight 806 crashed near Pago Pago International Airport, 97 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19740130-0

1975 – Turkey – Turkish Airlines Flight 345 crashed near Istanbul, 42 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19750130-0

1979 – Japan – Varig Flight 967 missing off Tokyo, 6 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19790130-0

1998 – Chile – Earthquake measuring 7.1Mw, epicentre in Antofagata, 1 killed.

2000 – Côte d’Ivoire – Kenya Airways Flight 431 crashed off Abidjan-Felix Houphouet Boigny Airport, 169 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20000130-1

2013 – South Korea – Naro-1 launched. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naro-1