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23 January

393 – Roman Empire – Flavius Honorius Augustus appointed Roman Emperor (west). http://www.roman-empire.net/collapse/honorius.html

1368 – China – Zhu Yuanzhang became Emperor Hongwu. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hongwu_Emperor

1556 – China – Earthquake measuring 8.3Mw, epicentre in Shaanxi, 830,000 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1556_Shaanxi_earthquake

1570 – Scotland – James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, killed. http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usbiography/s/jamesstewartmoray.html


1571 – England – Royal Exchange, London, officially opened by Elizabeth I. https://youtu.be/Y2WL0NzTUJ8 http://www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=642 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Exchange,_London

1789 – USA – Georgetown University founded. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgetown_University

1795 – Netherlands – Battle of Texel (War of the First Coalition). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capture_of_the_Dutch_fleet_at_Den_Helder

1812 – USA – Earthquake measuring 7.8Mw, epicentre in New Madrid, Missouri. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1811-1812.php

1827 – USA – Fredonian Rebellion ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fredonian_Rebellion


1849 – USA – Elizabeth Blackwell became first US female doctor. https://youtu.be/j-Vpxb6A6XI https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Blackwell

1855 – New Zealand – Earthquake measuring 8.2Mw, epicentre in Wairarapa. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/historic-earthquakes/page-3


1870 – USA – Marias Massacre. https://youtu.be/Y11ck5xKyQQ WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-mariasmassacre.html


1879 – South Africa – Battle of Rorke’s Drift ended (Anglo-Zulu War). https://youtu.be/fpc6Raka6SI http://www.britishbattles.com/zulu-war/rorkes-drift.htm

1899 – Philippines – Emilio Aquinaldo became President. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emilio_Aguinaldo


1900 – South Africa – Battle of Spion Kop began (Second Boer War). https://youtu.be/2UqRreynGxQ WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.britishbattles.com/battle-of-spion-kop/

1904 – Norway – Fire of Ålesund. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%85lesund_Fire

1909 – USA – RMS Republic and SS Florida collided off coast of Massachusetts, 6 killed. http://www.bbc.co.uk/cambridgeshire/content/articles/2009/01/21/jack_binns_hero_feature.shtml

1912 – Netherlands – International Opium Convention Treaty signed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Opium_Convention

1941 – Romania – Legionaires’ Rebellion ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legionnaires%27_rebellion_and_Bucharest_pogrom

1941 – USA – TWA plane crashed near Saint Louis Airport, MO, 2 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19410123-0

1942 – New Britain – Battle of Rabaul began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Rabaul_(1942)


1943 – Libya – Liberation of Tripoli (WWII). https://youtu.be/_X1GHgZOUs4 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/ww2-british-8th-army-marches-tripoli

1943 – Solomon Islands – Battle of Mount Austen, the Galloping Horse & the Sea Horse ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mount_Austen,_the_Galloping_Horse,_and_the_Sea_Horse

1945 – Prussia – Operation Hannibal began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Hannibal

1945 – France – USAAF plane missing, 5 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450123-1

1947 – Canada – TCAL plane crashed near Headingly, 2 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19470123-1

1953 – USSR – Two Aeroflot planes crashed near Kazan Airport, 11 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19530123-1

1955 – Ukraine – Aerolflot plane crashed near Lipovec. Kagarlyksy District, 3 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19550123-0

1958 – Venezuela – President Marco Pérez Jiménez overthrown, Wolfgang Larrazábal became President. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcos_P%C3%A9rez_Jim%C3%A9nez https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfgang_Larraz%C3%A1bal

1963 – Guinea-Bissau – War of Independence began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guinea-Bissau_War_of_Independence

1967 – USSR – Diplomatic relations with Côte d’Ivoire established.


1967 – UK – Milton Keynes founded. https://youtu.be/VOtaTbirEk0 https://youtu.be/hCEUuH7_XoE https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Keynes


1973 – Iceland – Volcanic eruptions devastated Heimaey. http://youtu.be/ghl33n26d44  http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/boris/mirror/mirrored_html/Heimaey.html

1982 – USA – World Airways Flight 30 crashed at Boston-Logan International Airport, MA, 2 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19820123-0

1997 – USA – Madeleine Albright became first female US Secretary of State. http://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/people/albright-madeleine-korbel

2001 – Yemen – Yemenia Flight 448 hijacked. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yemenia_Flight_448

2005 – Ukraine – Orange Revolution ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_Revolution

2011 – UK – Earthquake measuring 3.5Mw, epicentre in Glenuig, Scotland. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-highlands-islands-12262293