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16 January

27BCE – Roman Empire – Caesar Divi Filius Augustus became Roman Emperor.  http://www.roman-empire.net/emperors/augustus.html

1362 – Germany – Rungholt destroyed by storm tide. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rungholt

1547 – Russia – Ivan IV “The Terrible” became Tzar. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_the_Terrible

1556 – Spain – Philip II became king. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Spain

1572 – England – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, tried for treason, part of Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism. http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/norfolk4.htm

1581 – England – Parliament outlawed Roman Catholicism. http://www.elizabethi.org/contents/elizabethanchurch/catholics.html

1707 – Scotland – Parliament approved the Act of Union, leading to creation of Great Britain. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/evolutionofparliament/legislativescrutiny/act-of-union-1707/

1780 – Portugal – Battle of Cape St. Vincent (American Revolutionary War). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cape_St._Vincent_(1780)

1809 – Spain – Battle of Carunna (Peninsular War). http://www.britishbattles.com/peninsula/peninsula-coruna.htm

1878 – Ottoman Empire – Battle of Philippopolis ended (Russo-Turkish War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Philippopolis_(1878)

1883 – UK – Earthquake measuring 3.8Mw, epicentre in Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, Wales.

1909 – Antarctica – Magnetic South Pole found by Nimrod Expedition. http://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/History/Ernest%20Shackleton_Nimrod_expedition.htm

1924 – Greece – Eleftherios Venizelos became Prime Minister (4th time). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleftherios_Venizelos

1939 – England – S-Plan began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-Plan

1942 – USA – TWA Flight 3 crashed at Potosi Mountain, California, 22 killed (incl. Actress Carole Lombard). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19420116-0  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carole_Lombard

1943 – Germany – RAF bombers attacked Berlin (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1943 – USA – US Navy plane missing off Brunswick, GA, 5 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19430116-1

1945 – USA – USAAF plane crashed near Brownfield, IL, 4 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450116-0

1945 – China – CNAC plane crashed near Kunming, 3 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450116-1

1945 – China – USAAF plane crashed near Kunming, 3 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450116-2

1949 – India – Dalmia Jain Airways crashed near Banihal Pass, 13 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19490116-0

1951 – USA – Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 115 crashed near Reardan, WA, 10 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19510116-0

1951 – South Korea – USAF plane crashed near Taejon K5 Airfield, 4 killed (Korean War). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19510116-1

1974 – Indonesia – Malari Riot ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malari_incident

1983 – Turkey – Turkish Airlines Flight 158 crashed at Anakara Esengoğa Airport, 47 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19830116-1

1992 – Mexico – Chapultepec Peace Accord signed (Salvadoran Civil War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chapultepec_Peace_Accords

2001 – Democratic Republic of the Congo – President Laurent-Désiré Kabila assassinated. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurent-D%C3%A9sir%C3%A9_Kabila

2003 – USA – Space Shuttle Columbia launched on what would be last mission. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-107.html

2006 – Liberia – Ellen Johnson Sirleaf became president. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellen_Johnson_Sirleaf

2013 – Algeria – In Amenas hostage crises began. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-21087732

York

1813 – Luddites John Swallow, John Balley, Joseph Fisher, Job Hey, John Hill, William Hartley, James Hey, Joseph Crowther, Matthew Boyle, James Haigh, Jonathan Dean, John Ogden, John Walker and Thomas Brook were executed at gallows behind Castle Walls. http://pastsearch-archaeo-history.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Criminals-and-Executions-Jan12.pdf