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1 January

45 BC – Roman Republic – Gaius Julius Caesar became Consol.

45 BC – Roman Empire – Julian Calendar took effect. http://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/julian-calendar.html

193 – Roman Empire – Caesar Publius Heluius Pertinax Augustus became Roman Emperor. http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/pertinax.html

404 – Roman Empire – Roman mob tore Telemachus, a Christian Monk, to pieces, he tried to stop gladiators’ fight. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Telemachus

1001 – Hungary – Stephen I became king. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_I_of_Hungary

1068 – Byzantine Empire – Romanos IV Diogenes became Emperor. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanos_IV_Diogenes

1438 – Hungary – Coronation of Albert II of Hasburg. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_II_of_Germany 

1515 – France – Francis I became king. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I_of_France

1600 – Scotland – Began numbered year on this day rather than March 25.

1651 – Scotland – Charles II crowned king. http://www.britroyals.com/kings.asp?id=charles2

1700 – Russia – Began using the Anno Domini era, rather than Anno Mundi era of Byzantine Empire.

1707 – Portugal – Coronation of John V. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_V_of_Portugal

1739 – Bouvet Island – Discovered by Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier. http://explorion.net/great-navigators-eighteenth-century/french-navigators-i

1772 – GB – First Traveller’s Cheques sold in London.

1773 – GB – “Amazing Grace” used to accompany sermon by John Newton in Olney. http://www.johnnewton.org/Groups/56215/The_John_Newton/The_Complete_Works/Journals/Diaries_Intro/1773/1773.aspx

1776 – USA – Norfolk, Virginia burned by Royal Navy and Continental Army (American Revolutionary War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burning_of_Norfolk

1781 – USA – Pennsylvanian Line Mutiny (American Revolutionary War). https://www.libraries.psu.edu/psul/digital/pahistory/folder_2.html

1788 – GB – The Times newspaper first published in London, replaced The Daily Universal Register. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Times

1801 – UK – Legislative union completed to form United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. http://www.britroyals.com/union.htm

1804 – Haiti – End of Haitian Revolution, became independent from France. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haitian_Revolution

1806 – France – French Republican Calendar abolished. http://www.napoleon.org/en/essential_napoleon/calendar/

1808 – USA – Importation of slaves banned.

1812 – UK – Bishop of Durham, Shute Barrington, ordered Durham Castle troops to break up miners strike in Chester-le-Street. http://www.theguardian.com/uk/the-northerner/2012/mar/15/blogpost-bonny-moorhen-durham-miners-bishop-stanhope-community-play

1833 – Falkland Islands – UK claims sovereignty.

1837 – Israel – Earthquake measuring >7.0Mw, epicentre in Galilee, up to 7,000 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galilee_earthquake_of_1837

1845 – USA – Cobble Hill Tunnel, Brooklyn completed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cobble_Hill_Tunnel

1847 – USA – First “Mercy” Hospital founded in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. http://www.sistersinhealthcare.org/sisters_histories/smp.html

1860 – Poland – First Polish stamp issued. http://www.stampspoland.nl/series/prewar/0001.html

1863 – USA – Emancipation Proclamation took effect in Confederate territory (American Civil War). http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/document.html?doc=8&title.raw=Emancipation%20Proclamation

1863 – USA – First claim under Homestead Act made by Daniel Freeman in Nebraska. http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/homestead-act/

1873 – Japan – Began using Gregorian calendar. http://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/gregorian-calendar.html

1877 – UK/India – Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India. http://www.royal.gov.uk/The%20Royal%20Collection%20and%20other%20collections/TheRoyalArchives/QueenVictoriaeducationproject/QueenVictoriasHindustanidiary.aspx

1881 – Panama – Panama Canal construction begun by Ferdinand de Lesseps. http://panamascanal.com/building-the-panama-canal-a-brief-historical-summary/


1892 – USA – Ellis Island opened to process immigrants. https://youtu.be/8X4CypTaOQs http://www.libertyellisfoundation.org/ellis-island-history

1894 – UK – Manchester Ship Canal officially opened. http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/from-the-archive-blog/2011/may/17/guardian190-manchester-ship-canal-opens

1898 – USA – City of Greater New York formed with 4 initial boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens and The Bronx. http://www.nyc.gov/html/nyc100/html/classroom/hist_info/nycfacts.html

1899 – Cuba – Spanish rule ceased.

1901 – Nigeria – Became a British protectorate.

1901 – Australia – Edmund Barton became Prime Minister. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Barton

1906 – India (British) – Officially adopted Indian Standard Time

1909 – USA – Drilling began on Lakeview Gusher, California. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lakeview_Gusher

1912 – Republic of China – Established.

1913 – UK – British Board of Film Censors established.  http://blog.nationalarchives.gov.uk/blog/a-century-of-british-film-censorship/

1923 – Turkey – Adopted Gregorian Calendar. http://www.rail.co.uk/british-railway-history/british-rail/

1923 – UK– Railways grouped into LNER, GWR, SR and LMS. http://www.rail.co.uk/british-railway-history/british-rail/

1927 – Mexico – Critero War began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cristero_War

1929 – Canada – Vancouver formed.


1934 – USA – Alcatraz Island became a federal prison. https://youtu.be/3vjdOUzKqu4 http://www.alcatrazhistory.com/rock/rock-029.htm

1937 – UK – Safety glass in vehicle windscreens became mandatory.

1940 – Finland – Battle for Raate Road began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Raate_Road

1943 – Pacific Ocean – US Navy plane crashed, 3 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19430101-1

1944 – Germany – RAF bombers attacked Berlin and Hamburg (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1945 – Belgium – Chenogne Massacre (WWII). https://youtu.be/mRmSBnk4BCU WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chenogne_massacre

1945 – Belgium/ Netherlands/ France – Operation Bodenplatte (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Bodenplatte

1949 – UK – Railway network nationalised to form British Railways. http://www.rail.co.uk/british-railway-history/british-rail/

1950 – Australia – John Fairfax & Sons plane crashed near Camden Airport, NSW, 2 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19500101-0

1956 – Sudan – Independence from Egypt and UK. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Sudan_(1956%E2%80%9369)

1956 – Japan – Stampede at Yahiko Shrine, Yahiko Niigata, 124 killed.

1957 – Malaysia – George Town, Penang became a city by Roayal Charter granted by Elizabeth II.

1958 – Northern Ireland – IRA attacked Brookeborough RUC barracks.

1959 – Cuban Revolution ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_Revolution

1960 – Cameroon – Independence from France and UK. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13148483

1962 – Samoa – Independence from New Zealand. https://www.un.int/samoa/event/independence-day

1962 – USA – US Navy SEALs established. http://navyseals.com/nsw/navy-seal-history/

1964 – Zambia – Became an independent republic.

1964 – Malawi – Became an independent republic.

1964 – Rhodesia – Became a British controlled republic.

1965 – Afghanistan – People’s Democratic Party founded in Kabul.

1966 – Central African Republic – Saint-Sylvestre coup d’état ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Sylvestre_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat

1971 – USA – Cigarette advertisements banned on television.

1973 – Denmark – Admitted into European Union. http://europa.eu/about-eu/countries/member-countries/

1973 – UK & Ireland – Admitted into European Union. http://europa.eu/about-eu/countries/member-countries/

1978 – India – Air India Flight 855 crashed near Bombay-Sanctacruz Airport, 213 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19780101-1

1979 – USA/China – Diplomatic relations established.

1981 – Greece – Admitted into European Union. http://europa.eu/about-eu/countries/member-countries/

1984 – Brunei – Independence from UK. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-12990560

1985 – UK – First UK mobile phone call made. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4138449.stm

1986 – Spain & Portugal – Admitted into European Union. http://europa.eu/about-eu/countries/member-countries/

1988 – USA – Evangelical Lutheran Church of America founded.

1990 – USA – David Dinkins became New York City’s first black mayor. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Dinkins

1995 – Sweden, Austria & Finland – Admitted into European Union. http://europa.eu/about-eu/countries/member-countries/

2001 – Philippines – Earthquake measuring 7.5Mw, epicentre in Mindanao.

2002 – European Union – Euro banknotes and coins became legal tender.

2004 – Pakistan – Pervez Musharraf became President. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pervez_Musharraf

2007 – Bulgaria & Romania – Admitted into European Union. http://europa.eu/about-eu/countries/member-countries/

2007 – Indonesia – AdamAir Flight 574 crashed near Pambauang, 102 killed. https://youtu.be/YBVqk4yRAs4?list=PL77C49028892B302B WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20070101-0

2009 – Thailand – Santika Club fire, 66 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santika_Club_fire

2010 – Pakistan – Suicide bomber at volley ball tournament, Lakki Marwat, 105 killed. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/8437114.stm

2011 – Argentina – Earthquake measuring 7.0Mw, epicentre in Santiago del Estero. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2011/usc0000xky/

2013 – Ivory Coast – Stampede at Felix Houphouët-Boigny Stadium, 61 killed. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-20881552

2017 – Turkey – Reina Nightclub attack, 39 killed. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-38481521

York

1646 – A Convoy, commanded by Major General Skippon, arrived in York.

1881 – Skeldergate Bridge opened to pedestrians. http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/victorian/skeldergate-bridge