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8 February

421 – Roman Empire – Flavius Constantius Austus became Roman Emperor (west). http://www.roman-empire.net/collapse/constantius-III.html

1238 – Russia – Mongols burnt city of Vladimir. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_invasion_of_Rus%27

1250 – Egypt – Battle of Al Mansurah began (Seventh Crusade). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Al_Mansurah

1347 – Byzantine Empire – Byzantine Civil War ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_civil_war_of_1341%E2%80%9347

1575 – Netherlands – Leiden University founded. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leiden_University

1587 – England – Mary, Queen of Scots executed, suspected of being involved in Babington Plot against Elizabeth I. http://tudorhistory.org/primary/exmary.html

1601 – England – Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebelled against Elizabeth I. http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/essex.htm

1693 – America – College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, granted a charter by William III and Mary II. http://www.wm.edu/about/history/

1725 – Russia – Peter the Great died, Catherine I became Empress. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_the_Great https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catherine_I_of_Russia

1726 – Russia – Supreme Privy Council established. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Privy_Council

1750 – GB – Earthquake measuring 2.6Mw, epicentre in London. http://www.lookandlearn.com/blog/16674/londons-earthquake-in-1750-moved-its-citizens-to-panic-and-collective-repentance/

1807 – Poland – Battle of Eylau ended (Napoleonic Wars). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Eylau

1837 – USA – Richard Johnson became first Vice President chosen by US Senate. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_Richard_M_Johnson.htm

1855 – UK – The Devil’s Footprints appeared in Devon. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1161765/Ancient-mystery-returns-Satans-hoofprints-spotted-Devon-garden.html

1856 – Wallachia – Barbu Dimitrie Stirbei abolished slavery. http://www.academia.edu/1132654/Gypsy_Slavery_in_Wallachia_and_Moldavia

1865 – USA – Voters in Delaware rejected 13th Amendment of US Constitution kept practice of slavery. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteenth_Amendment_to_the_U.S._Constitution

1879 – Canada – Universal Standard Time proposed at meeting of Royal Canadian Institute by Sanford Fleming. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandford_Fleming

1885 – Hawaii – First government approved Japanese immigrants arrived. http://www.picturebridemovie.com/japan.html

1887 – USA – Dawes Act authorized President to survey Native American tribal land and divide into allotments. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=50

1904 – Korea – Russo-Japanese War began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russo-Japanese_War

1904 – China – Battle of Port Arthur began (Russo-Japanese War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Port_Arthur

1910 – USA – Boy Scouts of America started by William D Boyce. http://www.scouting.org/About/FactSheets/Founders.aspx

1922 – USA – President Harding introduced radio to White House. http://millercenter.org/blog/warren-harding-installs-radio-in-white-house

1924 – USA – First state execution by gas chamber in Nevada. http://nsla.nevadaculture.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1539&Itemid=95

1942 – Singapore – Battle of Singapore began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Singapore

1943 – Burma – First Chindit Expedition began (WWII). http://www.chindits.info/Longcloth/Main.htm

1943 – USA – US Navy plane crashed at Whidbey Island-NAS, WA, 2 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19430208-0

1944 – USA – USAAF plane crashed near Linton, TN, 5 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19440208-3

1945 – Germany – Operation Veritable began (WWII). http://ww2today.com/8-february-1945-operation-veritable-british-and-canadians-attack  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Veritable

1948 – Switzerland – V Winter Olympic Games Closing Ceremony in St. Moritz. http://www.olympic.org/st-moritz-1948-winter-olympics

1948 – North Korea – Formal creation of Korean People’s Army announced.

1949 – Hungary – Cardinal Mindszenty sentenced for treason. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/cardinal-mindszenty-of-hungary-sentenced

1949 – Sweden – DDL plane crashed off Barsebäck, 27 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19490208-0

1950 – East Germany – The Stasi (secret police) established. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stasi

1955 – Pakistan – Government of Sindh abolished the Jagirdari system. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/299350/jagirdar-system

1960 – UK – Elizabeth II issued an order-in-Council that she and her family would be known as the House of Windsor, her descendants taking the name “Mountbatten-Windsor”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountbatten-Windsor

1962 – France – Charonne massacre. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charonne_(Paris_M%C3%A9tro)

1965 – USA – Eastern Air Lines Flight 663 crashed off Jones Beach, NY, 84 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19650208-0

1968 – USA – Orangeburg massacre, South Carolina. http://www.orangeburgmassacre.com/

1969 – Mexico – Meteorite fell near Pueblito de Allende, Chihuahua. https://www.mnh.si.edu/onehundredyears/featured_objects/AllendeMeteorite.html

1971 – Laos – Operation Lam Son 719 began (Vietnam War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Lam_Son_719

1978 – USA – US Senate proceedings broadcast on radio for first time.

1981 – Greece – Stampede at Karaiskakis Stadium, Neo, Faliro, 21 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karaiskakis_Stadium_disaster


1983 – Australia – Dust Storm over Melbourne. http://youtu.be/bYyM2R-eQ3I http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/blogs/on-this-day/2013/02/on-this-day-melbourne%E2%80%99s-monster-dust-storm


1986 – Canada – Two trains crashed at Dalehurst, Alberta, 23 killed. https://youtu.be/D5GvaRVgCyo?list=PL3HkuLUP2B9gXxuaM9yzpRGR2tJ8yAeNY  WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.hinton.ca/index.aspx?NID=148


1989 – Portugal – Independent Air Flight 1851 crashed into Pico Alto Mountain, Santa Maria Island, 144 killed. http://youtu.be/CeQktehW8cU http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19890208-0

1992 – France – XVI Winter Olympic Games Opening Ceremony in Albertville. http://www.olympic.org/albertville-1992-winter-olympics

1995 – Chechnya – New Year’s Storm ended (First Chechnya War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Grozny_(1994%E2%80%9395

2002 – USA – XIX Winter Olympic Games Opening Ceremony in Salt Lake City. http://www.olympic.org/salt-lake-city-2002-winter-olympics

2005 – Israel – Second Intifada ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Intifada

2008 – New Zealand – Eagle Airways Flight 2279 hijacked. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20080208-0

2010 – Afghanistan – Salang Avalanches. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/8506033.stm  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_Salang_avalanches

2014 – Saudi Arabia – Hotel fire in Medina, 15 killed. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-26105944

York

1685 – James II was proclaimed king, at York.