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23 February

1447 – Rome – Pope Eugene IV died. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Eugene_IV

1455 – Germany – Traditional date for publication of Gutenberg Bible. http://molcat1.bl.uk/treasures/gutenberg/search.asp https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gutenberg_Bible

1554 – Chile – Battle of Marihueñu (Arauco War). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Marihue%C3%B1u

1573 – Ireland – First Desmond Rebellion ended. http://www.theirishstory.com/2015/09/23/the-desmond-rebellions-part-i-the-first-rebellion-1569-73/#.VkFuWdInzcu

1820 – UK – Cato Street Conspiracy Arrest. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cato_Street_Conspiracy  http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/blackhistory/rights/cato.htm


1836 – USA – Battle of the Alamo began (Texas Revolution). https://youtu.be/oueKEtP1pl8 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.thealamo.org/

1847 – Mexico – Battle of Buena Vista ended (Mexican-American War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Buena_Vista

1848 – Western & Central Europe – Spring of Nations began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutions_of_1848

1848 – France – French Revolution of 1848 began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolution_of_1848

1852 – UK – Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby became Prime Minister (Conservative). https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/edward-smith-stanley-14th-earl-of-derby

1863 – New Zealand – Earthquake measuring 7.5Mw, epicentre in Hawke’s Bay. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1863_Hawke%27s_Bay_earthquake

1870 – USA – Hiram Rhodes Revels became US Senate, first African American to sit in US Congress. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiram_Rhodes_Revels

1885 – Vietnam – Battle of Đông Đăng (Sino-French War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_%C4%90%E1%BB%93ng_%C4%90%C4%83ng

1887 – Italy/France – Earthquake in Mediterranean, 2,000 killed. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/earthquake-strikes-mediterranean

1900 – South Africa – Battle of Hart’s Hill (Second Boar War). http://www.angloboerwar.com/books/77-romer-the-2nd-royal-dublin-fusiliers/1590-romer-harts-and-pieters-hills-the-relief-of-ladysmith

1903 – Cuba – Leased Guantánamo Bay to USA “in perpetuity”. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/dip_cuba002.asp

1905 – USA – Rotary Club formed in Chicago. https://www.rotary.org/en/about-rotary/history

1917 – Russia – February Revolution began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_Revolution

1920 – South Africa – Handley Page Transport plane crashed in Acadia Siding, Cape Province. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19200223-0

1934 – Belgium – Leopold III became king. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_III_of_Belgium

1942 – Burma – Battle of Sittang Bridge ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sittang_Bridge

1942 – Indonesia – MLD plane crashed at Tanjung Priok NAS, 5 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19420223-1

1942 – USA – Japanese bombardment of Ellwood (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombardment_of_Ellwood

1943 – Egypt – USAAF plane crashed near Cairo, 5 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19430223-0

1943 – Ireland – Fire at St. Joseph’s Orphanage, County Cavan, 36 killed. http://www.rte.ie/tv/scannal/cavanfire.html

1944 – Burma – Battle of Admin Box ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Admin_Box

1944 – Marshall Islands – Battle of Eniwetok ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Eniwetok

1944 – Mozambique – DETA Mocambique Airlines plane crashed at Quelimane Airport, 13 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19440223-2

1945 – Philippines – Los Baños Internment camp liberated by Filipino and American forces (WWII). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Ba%C3%B1os,_Laguna

1945 – Germany – RAF bomber attacked Pforzheim (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1945 – Poland – Battle of Poznań ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Pozna%C5%84_(1945)

1945 – USA – American Airlines plane crashed near Rural Retreat, VA, 17 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450223-0

1945 – Morocco – USAAF plane crashed near Casablanca-Cazes Airport, 13 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450223-1

1945 – Czech Repubic – Luftwaffe plane crashed at Malá Úpa, 8 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450223-5

1946 – Province of British India – Royal Indian Navy Mutiny ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Indian_Navy_mutiny

1948 – Philippines – Commercial Airways plane crashed at mati, 12 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19480223-2

1954 – Malaysia – RAF plane crashed near Gemas, 4 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19540223-0

1955 – Zimbabwe – Central African Airways Flight 626 crashed at Salisbury Airport, 1 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19550223-0

1991 – Thailand – Prime Minister Chatichai Choonhavan deposed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chatichai_Choonhavan

1992 – France – XVI Winter Olympic Games Closing Ceremony in Albertville. http://www.olympic.org/albertville-1992-winter-olympics


1998 – USA – Tornadoes in central Florida, 42 killed. https://youtu.be/BhTWZnciSKs  WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998_Kissimmee_tornado_outbreak

1999 – Austria – Avalanche destroyed Galtür village, 31 killed. https://youtu.be/YYP_VNJcRsA WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/glacial_landscapes/avalanches_rev2.shtml

2007 – UK – Train derailed near Grayrigg, Cumbria, 1 killed. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6391633.stm  http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/docsummary.php?docID=1037

2010 – Italy – Diesel oil poured into river Lambro causing an environmental disaster. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/feb/24/oil-spill-po-italy-river

2012 – Iraq – Iraq Attacks. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/23_February_2012_Iraq_attacks

2014 – Russia – XXII Winter Olympic Games Closing Ceremony in Sochi. http://www.olympic.org/sochi-2014-winter-olympics

2014 – Ukraine – Ukraine Revolution ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_Ukrainian_revolution

York

1719 – The York Mercury newspaper first published by Grace White. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/yorks/city-of-york/pp537-541#h3-0002

1739 – Richard Palmer identified as Dick Turpin at York Castle. http://www.jorvik.co.uk/dick-turpin/