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31 December

192 – Roman Empire – Emperor Commodus assassinated. http://www.roman-empire.net/highpoint/commodus.html

335 – Rome – Pope Sylvester I died. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Sylvester_I

870 – England – Battle of Englefield (Viking Invasion of England). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Englefield

1501 – India – First Battle of Cannanore began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Cannanore

1600 – England – East India Company founded. http://www.theeastindiacompany.com/index.php/24/timeline/

1687 – France – First Huguenots set sail for the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. http://www.hugenoot.org.za/histSA.htm


1695 – England – Window Tax imposed, many householders bricked up windows to avoid paying. https://youtu.be/MGE98o4WnnQ http://www.historyhouse.co.uk/articles/window_tax.html http://www.nas.gov.uk/guides/taxation.asp

1703 – Japan – Earthquake measuring 8.2Mw, epicentre in Kanto region, 5,233 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1703_Genroku_earthquake

1759 – Ireland – Arthur Guinness signed 9,000 year lease to brew Guinness.  http://www.guinness-storehouse.com/en/docs/Guinness_History_Timeline.pdf


1775 – Canada – Battle of Quebec (American Revolutionary War). https://youtu.be/TY31Io-pHvI http://www.britishbattles.com/battle-of-quebec-1775.htm

1790 – Austria – Efimeris, greek newspaper first published in Vienna. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Efimeris

1799 – Netherlands – Dutch East India Company dissolved. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company


1862 – USA – Battle of Stones River began (American Civil War). https://youtu.be/LztKTv9pRY8 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/stones-river.html#

1881 – India – Earthquake measuring 7.9Mw, epicentre in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1881_Nicobar_Islands_earthquake

1907 – USA – New Year’s Eve Ball used for first time in Longacre Square (Times Square), New York City. http://www.timessquarenyc.org/events/new-years-eve/about-the-new-years-eve-ball/history-of-the-new-years-eve-ball/index.aspx

1909 – USA – Manhattan Bridge opened. http://www.asce.org/People-and-Projects/Projects/Landmarks/Manhattan-Bridge/

1923 – UK – Chimes of Big Ben broadcast for first time on BBC radio. http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/bigben/7502.shtml

1935 – Egypt – Imperial Airways plane crashed off Alexandrai, 12 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19351231-0

1940 – Germany – RAF bombers attacked Köln & Bridge over Rhine at Emmerich (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1942 – USA – US Navy plane crashed near Heceta Head, OR, 7 killed (WWII).  http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19421231-0

1944 – France – Operation Norwood began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Nordwind

1944 – Germany – USAAF bombers attacked Helgoland (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1946 – USA – Inter Continental Air Transport plane crashed near Charleston, SC, 5 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19461231-1

1948 – Italy – Pan African Air Charter plane crashed at Monte Argentario, 13 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19481231-0

1951 – India – Kalinga Airlines plane crashed at Calcutta-Dum Dum Airport, 3 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19511231-0

1954 – USSR – Aeroflot plane crashed at Irkutsk Airport, 17 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19541231-0

1960 – UK – Farthing coin ceased to be legal tender. http://www.britishfarthings.com/history.html

1963 – Cyprus – Bloody Christmas ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloody_Christmas_(1963)

1963 – Central African Federation – Collapsed, split into Zambia, Malawi & Rhodesia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation_of_Rhodesia_and_Nyasaland

1965 – Central African Republic – Saint-Sylvestre coup d’état began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Sylvestre_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat

1968 – Australia – MacRobertson Miller Airlines Flight 1750 crashed near Port Hedland, WA, 26 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19681231-2

1986 – Puerto Rico – Fire at Dupont Plaza Hotel, San Juan, 97 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dupont_Plaza_Hotel_arson

1992 – Czechoslovakia – Dissolved, became Czech Republic & Slovakia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissolution_of_Czechoslovakia

1994 – Kiribati – One day skipped due to time zone change. http://www.kiribatitourism.gov.ki/index.php/aboutkiribati

1994 – Chechnya – New Year’s Stome began (First Chechnya War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Grozny_(1994%E2%80%9395)

1999 – Russia – President Boris Yeltsin resigned. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boris_Yeltsin


2004 – Taiwan – Taipei 101 officially opened. https://youtu.be/B031ebdzRvc http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=18

2008 – Greece – Riots ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_Greek_riots

2014 – China – Shanghai Stampede, 36 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_Shanghai_stampede

2015 – United Arab Emirates – Fire at the Address Downtown Dubai hotel. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-35207451

York

1662 – Olde Starre Inn sold to William Wyvill, in trust for Henry Thompson, Lord Mayor.

1859 – Charles Normington was executed at gallows behind Castle Walls. http://pastsearch-archaeo-history.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Criminals-and-Executions-Jan12.pdf