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12 December

627 – Byzantine Empire – Battle of Nineveh (Byzantine-Sassanid War). http://burnpit.us/2011/12/battle-nineveh-byzantines-defeat-sassanids

1098 – Syria – Ma’arrat al-Numan Massacre (Siege of Ma’arrat al-Numan Massacre- First Crusade). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Ma%27arrat_al-Numan

1254 – Rome – Rinaldo dei Conti di Jenne became Pope Alexander IV. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Alexander_IV

1781 – USA – Second Battle of Ushant (American Revolutionary War). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Ushant

1787 – USA – Pennsylvania became the 2nd State. http://www.50states.com/pennsylv.htm


1862 – USA – USS Cairo sank on Yazoo River, Mississippi. https://youtu.be/-lXEKtt2CpI https://youtu.be/9Jbzt7F-SpM http://www.nps.gov/vick/u-s-s-cairo-gunboat.htm

1897 – Brazil – Belo Horizonte founded. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belo_Horizonte

1911 – India – Delhi became capital. http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2011/11/11/why-delhi-the-move-from-calcutta/

1911 – India – UK King George V & Mary Teck became Emperor & Empress.  http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-180508/King-George-V-and-Queen-Mary-of-the-United-Kingdom

1920 – Ireland – Burning of Cork ended (Irish War of Independence). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burning_of_Cork

1937 – China – USS Panay sunk by Japanese aircraft. http://www.usspanay.org/

1939 – Finland – Battle of Tolvajärva (Winter War). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tolvaj%C3%A4rvi

1939 – UK – HMS Duchess sank off coast of Scotland, 124 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Duchess_(H64)

1940 – UK – Air raid of Sheffield, Marples Hotel, Fitzalan Sq hit, 70 killed (WWII). http://news.bbc.co.uk/dna/place-lancashire/plain/A5559573

1941 – Hungary & Hungary – Declared war on USA (WWII).

1941 – India – Declared war on Japan (WWII).

1941 – UK – Declared war on Bulgaria (WWII).

1942 – Canada – Fire at Knights of Columbus Hostel, St. John’s, Newfoundland, 99 killed. http://www.kofc.org/en/columbia/detail/2012_12_kofc_fire.html

1942 – USSR – Operation Winter Storm began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Winter_Storm

1943 – Germany – RAF bombers attacked Essen & Düsseldorf (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1945 – Papua New Guinea – RAAF plane crashed at Wama Airstrip, 1 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19451212-0


1948 – Malaysia – Batang Kali Massaccre, 24 killed.  http://youtu.be/AX1rSnudbzQ  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-19473258

1948 – Taiwan – CNAC plane crashed at Taipei, 2 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19481212-0

1949 – USA – Capital Airlines Flight 500 crashed near Washington-National Airport, DC, 6 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19491212-0

1949 – Pakistan – Pakair plane crashed at Jungshahi, 26 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19491212-1

1950 – Samoa – RNZAF plane crashed near Satapuala, Upolu, 7 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19501212-0

1953 – Peru – Earthquake measuring 7.5Mw, epicentre in Tumbes, 6 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953_Tumbes_earthquake

1956 – Ireland – Border Campaign began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Border_Campaign_(Irish_Republican_Army)

1958 – Guinea – Joined the United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/members/


1963 – Kenya – Independence from UK. https://youtu.be/GZR099-5USo http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13682176

1964 – Kenya – Jomo Kenyatta became President. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jomo_Kenyatta

1968 – Venezuala – Pan Am Flight 217 crashed near Caracas, 51 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19681212-0

1969 – Itlay – Piazza Fontana bombing, 17 killed. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/12/newsid_3953000/3953999.stm

1975 – UK – Balcombe Street Siege ended (The Troubles). http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/12/newsid_2546000/2546477.stm

1979 – Colombia – Earthquake measuring 8.2Mw, epicentre Tumaco, followed by Tsunami, 259 killed. http://www.drgeorgepc.com/Tsunami1979Colombia.html


1985 – Canada – Arrow Air Flight 1285R crashed near Gander Airport, 256 killed. https://youtu.be/OZFYleEc4zg  http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19851212-0


1988 – UK – Clapham Junction rail crash, 35 killed. https://youtu.be/759BUz46Gkg http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/12/newsid_2547000/2547561.stm

2001 – Australia – Earthquake measuring 7.1Mw, epicentre south of Australia.

2005 – Australia – Cronulla riots ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005_Cronulla_riots

2005 – Afghanistan – Earthquake measuring 6.5Mw, epicentre in Hindu Kush region, 5 killed. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2005/usgnay/

2012 – North Korea – Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 3 satellite launched. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwangmy%C5%8Fngs%C5%8Fng-3_Unit_2