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4 April

896 – Rome – Pope Formosus died.  Boniface VI became Pope. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Formosus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Boniface_VI

1291 – Israel – Siege of Acre began (Crusades). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_(1291)

1292 – Rome – Pope Nicholas IV died. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Nicholas_IV

1292 – Rome – Extended Papal Interregnum started. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sede_vacante

1581 – England – Francis Drake knighted. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Drake

1660 – England – Declaration of Breda issued by Charles II. http://bcw-project.org/church-and-state/the-restoration/declaration-of-breda

1721 – GB – Sir Robert Walpole became Prime Minster (Whig). https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/robert-walpole


1796 – France – Georges Cuvier delivered his first Paleontological lecture. https://youtu.be/LwNwuRhM0os http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2013/12/16/the-lost-world-2

1807 – Malta – Frobert Mutiny began (Napoleonic War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Froberg_mutiny

1812 – USA – President James Madison enacted a 90 day embargo on trade with UK. http://www.emersonkent.com/history/timelines/war_of_1812_year_1812.htm

1818 – USA – US Congress adopted US Flag Act. http://www.ushistory.org/betsy/flagfact.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_Acts_(United_States)

1841 – USA – President William Henry Harrison died. John Tyler became President (Whig). http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhenryharrison http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johntyler

1850 – USA – Los Angeles, California, incorporated as a city. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles

1850 – UK – Great fire of Cottenham, Cambridgeshire. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=15322

1866 – Russia – Attempted assassination of Alexander II by Dmitry Karakozov. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitry_Karakozov

1873 – UK – The Kennel Club was founded. http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/our-resources/about-the-kennel-club/history-of-the-kennel-club/

1887 – USA – Susanna M Salter elected first female mayor for Argonia, Kansas. http://emilytaylorcenter.ku.edu/pioneer-woman/salter

1905 – India – Earthquake measuring 7.8Mw, epicentre in Kangra Himachal Pradesh, 20,000 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1905_Kangra_earthquake

1925 – Germany – The Schutzstaffel (SS) established. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schutzstaffel

1930 – Panama – Communist Party founded.

1933 – USA – US Navy airship USS Akron crashed off coast of New Jersey. http://www.airships.net/blog/worst-airship-disaster-history-uss-akron

1939 – Iraq – Faisal II became King. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faisal_II_of_Iraq

1941 – Nicaragua – TACA de Nicaragua plane crashed near Alamicamba, 2 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19410404-0

1943 – Germany – RAF bombers attacked Kiel (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1943 – Denmark – BOAC plane crashed off Skagen, 7 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19430404-0

1944 – Burma – Battle of Kohima began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Kohima

1944 – Romania – Bombing of Bucharest by Anglo-American forces, 3000 killed (WWII). http://www.rri.ro/en_gb/the_bombing_of_bucharest_in_april_1944-2510

1945 – Germany – American troops liberated Ohrdruf forced labour camp (WWII). http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10006131

1945 – Germany – Battle of Kassel ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Kassel_(1945)

1946 – USA – US Navy plane crashed near Albuquerque-Kirtland AAF, NM, 11 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19460404-0


1949 – USA – North Atlantic Treaty signed by 12 countries. https://youtu.be/Z1bUYRyg6DQ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Atlantic_Treaty

1949 – Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Neherlands, Norway, Portugal, UK, USA – Joined NATO.

1949 – USA – Fire at St. Anthony’s hospital, Effingham l, Illinois, 77 killed. http://www.idaillinois.org/cdm/ref/collection/isl/id/20913

1951 – South Korea – Operation Ripper ended (Korean War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Ripper

1952 – USA – Two USAF planes crashed near Mobile-Brookley AFB, AL, 15 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19520404-0

1954 – Vietnam – Autrex plane crashed near Hanoi-Gia Lam Airport, 4 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19540404-0

1955 – USA – United Air Lines plane crashed near Islip-MacArthur Field, NY, 3 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19550404-0


1958 – UK – CND peace symbol used in public for first time. https://youtu.be/fwLd1FodDWU https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_symbols


1967 – USA – Martin Luther King Jr. gave “A time to break silence” speech. https://youtu.be/OC1Ru2p8OfU http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkatimetobreaksilence.htm


1968 – USA – Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated by James Earl Ray in Memphis, Tennessee. https://youtu.be/cmOBbxgxKvo WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing  http://www.thekingcenter.org/about-dr-king http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Earl_Ray

1968 – USA – Apollo 6 launched. https://youtu.be/kREHEUWCXbo http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1968-025A


1973 – USA – World Trade Centre in New York officially dedicated. https://youtu.be/YCspDGW4ZiM http://www.history.com/topics/world-trade-center


1975 – Vietnam – US Air Force plane crashed at Tan Son Nhut Air Base, 153 killed (Vietnam War-Operation Baby Lift). https://youtu.be/Z6yyHhnth9I   WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19750404-0


1977 – Georgia – Southern Airways Flight 242, crashed near New Hope, GA, 72 killed. https://youtu.be/rq0T0pTwhu0 WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19770404-1

1979 – Pakistan – President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto executed. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/4/newsid_2459000/2459507.stm


1983 – USA – Space Shuttle Challenger made first trip into space. https://youtu.be/RnbfiQn8fhc http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/shuttleoperations/orbiters/challenger-info.html

1987 – Indonesia – Garuda Indonesia Airways Flight 035 crashed at Medan-Polonia Airport, 23 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19870404-1

1991 – USA – Plane and helicopter collided mid air in Merion, Pennsylvania, 7 killed incl, Sen. John Heinz. http://www.nytimes.com/1991/04/05/us/senator-heinz-and-6-others-killed-in-midair-crash-near-philadelphia.html


1994 – Netherlands – KLM Cityhopper Flight 433 crashed near Schiphol Airport, 3 killed. https://youtu.be/ygitUEoepco WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19940404-1

2002 – Angola – Angolan Civil War ended. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angolan_Civil_War

2010 – USA – Earthquake measuring 7.2Mw, epicentre in Baja, California, 4 killed. http://abcnews.go.com/WN/earthquake-hits-baja-california-easter-sunday-damage-light/story?id=10291558 http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/ci14607652/

2011 – Democratic Republic of Congo – (United Nations) Georgian Airways Flight 834 crashed at N’djili Airport, 32 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20110404-0

2013 – India – A multi-storey building collapsed whilst under construction in  Thane, 72+ killed. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-22036751

York

1818 – Samuel Leatherhead was executed at gallows behind Castle Walls.

1868 – Frederick Parker was executed at gallows behind Castle Walls.

http://pastsearch-archaeo-history.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Criminals-and-Executions-Jan12.pdf

2008 – York Minster became first cathedral to have a carillon of bells. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/north_yorkshire/7519527.stm