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19 April

49BCE – Roman Republic – Siege of Massilia began (Caesar’s Civil War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Massilia

531 – Syria – Battle of Callinicum (Iberian War). http://burnpit.us/2010/04/battle-callinicum-persians-defeat-byzantines

896 – Rome – Pope Boniface VI died. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Boniface_VI

1012 – England – Ælfheah, Archbishop of Canterbury, killed at Greenwich. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86lfheah_of_Canterbury

1054 – Rome – Pope Leo IX excommunicated. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Leo_IX

1506 – Portugal – Lisbon Massacre began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisbon_Massacre

1539 – Germany – Treaty of Frankfurt signed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Frankfurt_(1539)

1608 – Ireland – O’Doherty’s Rebellion began. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O%27Doherty%27s_Rebellion

1677 – Spanish Netherlands – Siege of Cambrai ended (Franco-Dutch War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Cambrai_(1677)

1713 – Holy Roman Empire – Charles VI issued Pragmatic Sanction. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragmatic_Sanction_of_1713

1770 – Austria – Marie Antoinette married Louis XVI by proxy. http://www.history.com/news/royal-weddings-gone-bad  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Antoinette#Dauphine_of_France_.281770.E2.80.9374.29


1775 – America – American Revolutionary War began with Battles of Lexington & Concord. https://youtu.be/wsSpvkLfUDA  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolutionary_War https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battles_of_Lexington_and_Concord

1775 – America – Siege of Boston began (American Revolutionary War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Boston

1809 – Poland – Battle of Raszyn (Polish-Austrian War). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Raszyn_(1809)

1809 – Bavaria – Battle of Teugen-Hausen (War of Fifth Coalition). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Teugen-Hausen

1839 – UK – Treaty of London signed. http://www.scottmanning.com/content/treaty-of-london-1839/

1848 – Pakistan – Siege of Multan began (Second Anglo-Sikh War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Multan

1855 – UK – Napoleon III visited the Guildhall, London. http://www.historicalartmedals.com/MEDAL%20WEB%20ENTRIES/CityofLondon/WYON-NAPOLEON%20III%20AND%20EUGENIE-BW288.htm

1861 – USA – Baltimore Riot (American Civil War). http://www.nps.gov/fomc/historyculture/the-pratt-street-riot.htm

1892 – USA – Earthquake measuring 6.4Mw, epicentre in Vacaville, 1 killed. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1892_04_19.php

1900 – Philippines – Siege of Catubig ended (Philippine-American War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Catubig

1902 – Guatemala – Earthquake measuring 8.2Mw, epicentre in Quetzaltenango, 2,000 killed. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/earthquake-rocks-guatemala

1903 – Russian Empire – First Kishinev Pogrom began. https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/loc/kishinev.html

1919 – USA – Leslie Irvine made first free-fall parachute jump. http://www.copybook.com/military/jpads-parachutes/articles/leslie-leroy-irvin-parachute-jump

1938 – Turkey – Earthquake measuring 6.6Mw, epicentre in Kirsehir, 160 killed.

1943 – Poland – Warsaw Ghetto Uprising began (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising

1944 – Canada – RCAF plane crashed near Port Hardy Airport, BC, 2 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19440419-0

1945 – Germany – Battle of the Seelow Heights ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Seelow_Heights

1945 – Germany – Allied bombers attacked Helgoland (WWII). http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=55/Bombing-of-Hamburg-Dresden-and-Other-Cities-World-War-II-Database

1945 – Australia – US Navy plane crashed at Gooseberry Hill, WA, 13 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450419-0

1945 – France – RAF plane crashed near vitrolles, 6 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450419-3

1945 – Myanmar – USAAF plane missing at Ledo Pass area, 3 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450419-3

1948 – Myanmar – Joined the United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/members/

1954 – Pakistan – Urdu and Bengali recognised as national languages.


1956 – Monaco – Grace Kelly married Prince Rainier (Religious Service). https://youtu.be/YiOKFzRHm14 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Kelly#Wedding_and_marriage

1971 – Sierra Leone – Became a republic. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sierra_Leone

1971 – USSR – Salyut 1 launched. http://www.space.com/16773-first-space-station-salyut-1.html

1975 – India/USSR – Satellite Aryabhata launched. http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/heasarc/missions/aryabhata.html

1984 – Austrialia – Advance Australia Fair became national anthem, green and gold the national colours. https://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/nat_anthem.html http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/australia_national_symbols.html

1985 – USA – FBI siege on the compound of The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord. https://vault.fbi.gov/The%20Covenant%20The%20Sword%20The%20Arm%20of%20the%20Lord%20

1989 – Puerto Rico – USS Iowa explosion. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Iowa_turret_explosion

1993 – USA – Siege of Branch Davidian building, Waco ended, 81 killed. https://youtu.be/QxvrjINoNFw WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/19/newsid_2489000/2489769.stm

1995 – USA – Oklahoma City bombing, 168 killed. https://youtu.be/EjjnIdQe78s WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/famous-cases/oklahoma-city-bombing

2000 – Philippines – Air Philippines Flight 541 crashed near Davao, 131 killed. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/718762.stm http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20000419-0

2005 – Rome – Cardinal Joseph Alois Ratzinger became Pope Benedict XVI. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/world/2005/pope_benedict_xvi/default.stm   http://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en.html

2009 – Jamaica – CanJet Airlines Flight 918 hijacked at Sangster International Airport, Montego Bay. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20090419-0

2011 – Cuba – Fidal Castro resigned. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fidel_Castro

York

1885 – First ‘Military Sunday’ held at York Minster.