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13 April

1055 – Rome – Gebhard, count of Calw, Tollenstein und Hirschberg became Pope Victor II. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Victor_II

1111 – Holy Roman Emperor – Coronation of Henry V. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_V,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

1204 – Byzantine Empire – Siege of Constantinople ended (Fourth Crusade). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Constantinople_(1204)

1598 – France – Henry IV issued Edict of Nantes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edict_of_Nantes

1613 – America – Samuel Argall captured Pocahontas in Passapatanzy, Virginia, as ransom for English prisoners. http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/pocahontas-her-life-and-legend.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Argall

1777 – USA – Battle of Bound Brook, New Jersey (American Revolutionary War). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bound_Brook

1849 – Hungary – Became a republic.

1870 – USA – New York Metropolitan Museum of Art founded.  http://www.metmuseum.org/about-the-museum/now-at-the-met/features/2010/today-in-met-history-april-13

1873 – USA – Colfax Massacre, 100+ killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colfax_massacre

1909 – Ottoman Empire – Ottoman Countercoup. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_countercoup_of_1909

1912 – UK – The Royal Flying Corp established. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Flying_Corps

1919 – India – Jallian Bagh Massacre, 379+ killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jallianwala_Bagh_massacre


1928 – Canada – The Bremen reached Greenly Island, first east to west taranatlantic aeroplane flight. https://youtu.be/7t2TsCYECpo  http://www.askaboutireland.ie/reading-room/environment-geography/transport/the-flight-of-the-bremen/the-first-east-to-west-tr/

1941 – USSR/Japan – Pact of Neutrality signed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet%E2%80%93Japanese_Neutrality_Pact

1943 – USA – Jefferson Memorial dedicated. http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/presidents/thomas_jefferson_memorial.html

1943 – Australia – RAAF plane crashed at Cairns Harbour, Queensland, 6 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19430413-1

1944 – USA – US Navy plane crashed at Patuxent River NAS, MD, 1 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19440413-0

1944 – New Zealand – Established diplomatic relationship with USSR.

1945 – Tuvalu – RNZAF plane crashed at Funafuti Lagoon, 3 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450413-3

1945 – Germany – USAAF plane crashed at Nieheim, 6 killed (WWII). http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19450413-4

1945 – Germany – Gardelegen Massacre (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gardelegen_massacre

1945 – Austria – Vienna Offensive ended (WWII). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna_Offensive

1947 – Senegal – BSAA plane crashed at Dakar-Yoff Airport, 6 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19470413-0

1947 – Russia – Aeroflot plane crashed near Volochanka Village, Taymyr Peninsula, 9 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19470413-1

1948 – Israel/Palestine Hadassah medical convoy massacre in Sheikh Jarra, 80 killed. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadassah_medical_convoy_massacre

1949 – USA – Earthquake measuring 7.1Mw, epicentre in Olympia, Washington, 8 killed. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1949_04_13.php

1953 – USA – Project MKUltra began. https://youtu.be/2t-L26MjwRo WARNING! Video contains scenes some viewers may find distressing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_MKUltra#MKUltra

1954 – Laos – Sociéte Indochinoise de Ravitaillement plane crashed at Xiengkhouang, 16 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19540413-1

1954 – Chile – Fuerza Aérea de Chile plane crashed near Batuco, 14 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19540413-2

1960 – USA – Satallite navigation system, Transit 1-B launched. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1960-003B

1972 – South Vietnam – Battle of An Lôc began (Vietnam War). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_An_L%E1%BB%99c

1974 – USA – Satellite Westar 1 launched. http://space.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/Programs/westar.html

1975 – Lebanon – Lebanese Civil War began with Ain el-Rammaneh Incident. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bus_massacre

1976 – USA – $2 bill reintroduced as Feberal Reserve Note as part of Bicentennial celebrations. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_two-dollar_bill

1976 – Finland – Lapua Cartridge Factory explosion, 40 killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lapua_Cartridge_Factory_explosion


1992 – USA – Chicago floods. http://youtu.be/coeeBc3bfMA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_flood

2010 – China – Earthquake measuring 6.9Mw, epicentre in Yushu, Qinghai, 2,698 killed. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/8619135.stm

2010 – Mexico – AeroUnion Flight 302 crashed at General Mariano Escobedo International Airport, Monterrey, 6 killed. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20100413-1

2011 – Virgin Islands – Earthquake measuring 5.1Mw.

2014 – Mexico – Acayucan bus crash, 36 killed. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/13/bus-truck-crash-mexico-fire-kills-passengers

York

1649 – George Frederick and Maria Merrington were executed at St. Leonard’s Gallows.

http://pastsearch-archaeo-history.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Criminals-and-Executions-Jan12.pdf

1885 – Statue of George Leeman, Leeman Road, unveiled. http://www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/en-464764-leeman-statue-#.VStRDpV0zcs